|Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres, |
located 80 km (50 mi) southwest of Paris,
(constructed between 1194 and 1250).
The first time that I really noticed glass was at four or five years old, at my grandmother’s house. The sunlight filtering through a low window caught my eye with a brilliant blue glint through a small cobalt glass bottle. My grandmother held it up to the light for me and I was immediately transported into a realm of exquisite pure color.
Little did I know that the spell cast on me at such a young age had been cast on Egyptian pharaohs of the eighteenth dynasty and on Persian princesses by their jewelry two thousands years ago. In all three cases, the deep rich blue of cobalt oxide glass was responsible. The source of Middle Eastern cobalt is unknown today, possibly
but more recently, in the Renaissance; it was mined in Hungary,
in Bohemia and in German Saxony,
where it was called “zaffer,” after its sapphire color.
Legend tells that sixteenth century silver miners in
amassed a hoard of smaltite thinking it was silver ore. When they tried to
smelt it, the arsenic which cobalt ores always have, evolved highly toxic fumes
that made them sick. Discouraged and maligned, they said the product of their
labors was cursed by goblins; they named it “kobald” (cobalt) after the evil
spirits. Nevertheless, a strong market for the material developed among artists
for paint, potters for glazes, and glassmakers. The Saxon miners gained a
reputation for producing the finest zaffer.
In his glassmaking book L’Arte Vetraria, Antonio Neri describes his method for purifying and preparing zaffer for use in glass. It is a recipe that would stand the test of time, still quoted by authors into the nineteenth and twentieth century.
To Prepare Zaffer, Which Serves for Many Colors in the Art of Glassmaking
You should get zaffer in large pieces and put it in earthenware oven-pans holding it in the furnace chamber for half a day. Then put it into iron ladles to inflame it in the furnace. Heat it well, then take and sprinkle it with strong vinegar. When cold, grind it finely over a porphyry stone into glazed earthen pots with hot water. Then wash more water over it always leaving the zaffer to settle in the bottom.
Now gently decant, to carry away the sediment and impurities of the zaffer. The good part and pigment of the zaffer will remain in the bottom. The pigment remains are now prepared and purified to be far better than it was at first, which will make clear and limpid pigment. This zaffer should be dried and kept in sealed vessels for use, which will be much improved over the original.
Until the mid 1700s zaffer had been associated with silver and copper mines, and was commonly thought to be a derivative of copper. It was Swedish chemist Georg Brandt who finally isolated the new metal, and gave it the name which honors the miners and the subterranean spirits which still can cast a spell on us through its deep pure blue color in glass.