Dear Readers,

As you may have seen elsewhere, in mid February my wife and I suffered the loss of our home in a fire, in the hills of central Massachusetts. The good news is that we got out safely and had no animals in our care at the time. The fire crews were able to contain the fire from spreading, in what turned into a 3-alarm, 5-hour-long ordeal in subzero temperatures; they did amazing work, and no one was injured. The bad news is that all of my physical historical materials and research of 30 years have gone up in smoke. As a result I have decided to suspend this blog for the time being. It will remain online as a resource for those interested in the history of glass and glassmaking in the seventeenth century and beyond. I do intend to resume writing when I can, but for now my time and energy are required in getting us back on our feet.

Friends are providing temporary shelter for us nearby and our intention is to rebuild as soon as possible. To those who have reached out with a steady hand, to those who have opened their wallets, and offered advice in our time of need, we thank you from the bottom of our hearts. In what are already difficult times for all of us, you have made a huge difference in our lives.

Paul Engle
6 March, 2021

Picture Credits 2015

December 2015
Supplemental Twitter illustration (31 December 2015): Mater Dolorosa, Titian,  Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. http://xlart.com/en/lienzos/546-mug-sorolla-ninos-en-la-playa.html

Ultramarine Blue (30 December 2015):
Photo: Krén, Emil and Daniel Marx, Web Gallery of Art. Frescoes in the Cappella Scrovegni (Arena Chapel), Padua by Giotto, 1306, via http://drawingatduke.blogspot.com/2012/10/giotto-di-bondone.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration (29 December 2015): Unknown artist; the author of the MS is Abraham Abulafia. - The Vatican Library, Vat. ebr. 597 leaf 113 recto. An illuminated page from "Light of the Intellect" (1285) courtesy wikimedia commons  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabbalah#/media/File:Abraham_abulafia.jpg Also see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabbalah

The Kabbalah (28 December 2015):
Kabbalistic Sephiroth Tree, from Portae Lucis, Paulus Ricius (Trans. of “Shaare ora” by Joseph Gikatilla) Augsburg, 1516.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (27 December 2015): red glass vase with gilt bronze mounting. Florence or Pisa, late 16th, early 17th century.  http://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/cambi-casa-daste/catalogue-id-srcamb10018/lot-9abad7c3-0b12-4c3e-a07b-a52a00ff28bf

Supplemental Twitter illustration (24 December 2015): Alchemical symbols used to denote sal ammoniac. Paul Engle 2014, Photoshop, (after Medicinisch-Chymisch- und Alchemistisches Oraculum, Ulm, 1755).

Sal Ammoniac (25 December 2015):
Ammoniac (skeletal crystals to 10 sm). Uroch. Kukhi-Malik, Fan-yagnobskoe coal mine, near Ravat, Tadjikistan, Middle Asia, CIS, Yagnob. (c) A. A. Evseev, photo courtesy of http://www.jewellery.org.ua/stones-katalog-engl/mineral-nashatir.htm

Supplemental Twitter illustration (24 December 2015): Diderot’s Encyclopédie, the production of glass artificial pearls in 18th century France.  http://www.bigbeadlittlebead.com/guides_and_information/history_of_faux_pearls.php

Faux Pearls (23 December 2015):
Johannes Vermeer, "Girl with a pearl earring" (1665-6). Courtesy of Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, via Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johannes_Vermeer_(1632-1675)_-_The_Girl_With_The_Pearl_Earring_(1665).jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (22 December 2015): Glass items found by archaeologists in the baptistery at  SS. Giovanni e Reparata in Lucca, Italy. Evidence suggests some may have been originally  purchased from the Pisa shop of Giovanbattista Guerrazzi. http://archeologiamedievale.unisi.it/SitoCNR/Vetro/Produzione/Prod4b2.html

Rise and Fall (21 December 2015):
“Merry Company,” 1623. Gerard van Honthorst (1590–1656),
Courtesy of Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss, Schleißheim, via Wikimedia commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Honthorst,_Gerard_van_-_Merry_Company_-_1623.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (20 December 2015) Still Life with Fruit and Murano glass, Maximilian Pfeiler (1656-1746)  http://legislature.camera.it/frameset.asp?content=%2Faltre_sezionism%2F8180%2F8187%2F8238%2F8547%2Falbum_nuovo%2Easp%3F

Supplemental Twitter illustration (19 December 2015): The library of the University of Leiden (1610), where Christoph Plantin worked from 1583 to 1585. Picture courtesy of Frédéric Barbier http://histoire-du-livre.blogspot.com/2012_04_01_archive.html (28 Avril 2012). University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in ''Stedeboeck der Nederlanden'', Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649.

Neri the Scholar (18 December 2015):
Francesco Bartolozzi, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, fine XVIII sec.
http://babilonia61.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Francesco-Bartolozzi-Biblioteca-Medicea-Laurenziana-fine-XVIII-sec.--1024x619.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (17 December 2015): Jacob van Loo, A 17th cent. Dutch Glass Factory, 163 x 215 cm, Oil on canvas. Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen https://www.pubhist.com/w3934

Roasting the Frit (16 December 2015):
Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert eds., L'Encyclopédie, Vol. 10 (1772), "Glass Making,” Raking Out Baked Frit (Verrerie – Verrerie en bois ou petite verrerie à pivette) fig. 15.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (15 December 2015): A modern take on traditional trade beads by American flamework artist  Harold Williams Cooney. Photo by artist. @AmericanBeads

Glass Beads (14 December 2015):
String of Six-layer glass chevron trade beads from Venice, popular as trade currency in the 15th 16th and 17th century (photo attr. unknown).

Twitter weekly review (13 December 2015): Remedios Varo (1908-1963), "Creation of the Birds", 1957 courtesy, Venetian Red blog: Alchemy and Science,   http://venetianred.net/2009/08/12/remedios-varo-alchemy-and-science/

Supplemental Twitter illustration (12 December 2015):
Neri Medallion, Specola, Florence (manipulated to remove parallax distortion, and correct color) Original courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Specola,_medaglione_di_antonio_neri.JPG

Fall from Grace (11 December 2015)
Felice Fontana portrait, attribution unknown (to me).
http://www.internetculturale.it/opencms/opencms/it/archivionovita/2005/novita_19.html
http://www.imss.fi.it/news/ifelicefontana.html
Here for a photo of the Fontana bust on display at La Specola: http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/result.html?*sform=wellcome-images&_IXACTION_=query&%24%3Dtoday=&_IXFIRST_=1&%3Did_ref=M0018822&_IXSPFX_=templates/t&_IXFPFX_=templates/t&_IXMAXHITS_=1

Supplemental Twitter illustration (10 December 2015): A coach of the middle of the seventeenth century: from an engraving by John Dunstall.A Student's History of England, v. 2 (of 3),1509-1689, by Samuel Rawson Gardiner http://www.gutenberg.org/files/40192/40192-h/40192-h.htm

Neri's Travels (9 December 2015):
“Roma,” Antonio Neri, from Tesoro del Mondo (Neri 1598–1600), Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (8 December 2015):  Domenico Remps (1620–1699)
Cabinet of Curiosities, 1690s, oil on canvas, Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence
 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cabinet_of_Curiosities_1690s_Domenico_Remps.jpg

Francesco's Studiolo (7 December 2015):
The studiolo of Francesco de' Medici, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. Photo courtesy of http://static.digischool.nl/ckv2/hof/Hofcultuur3/studiolo.htm

Supplemental Twitter illustration (6 December 2015): "Fornace da vetri" Commemorates treaty of Karlowitz. Glasshouse in which the blower blows a figurine of Peace, on which representatives of the warring powers comment outside. 1698 Etching, Giuseppe Maria Mitelli. Courtesy of British Museum #1852,1009.1036
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1433488&partId=1&people=114594&peoA=114594-2-60&page=1

Supplemental Twitter illustration (5 December 2015): Miniature of a North Italian apothecary's shop in a Hebrew edition of the Canon Medicinae by Ibn Sina/Avicenna, c. 1450-75, Bibliotheca Universitaria, Bologna, Italy, MS 2197, fol. 492. http://globalthingsproject.squarespace.com/updates/2014/5/19/a-syrian-apothecary-jar-in-the-three-marys-at-the-tomb-by-jan-van-eyck

Royal Apothecary (4 December 2015):
Fresco, early 16th century speziale, Castello di  Issogne, lower Aosta Valley, Italy.Courtesy of Istituto Comprensivo Edmondo de Amicis - Marcallo con Casone. http://www.icmarcallo.it/mesero/scuola_media_di_mesero/attivita_opzionali/issogne/1.castello_bianconero.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration (3 December 2015): Carolyn Baum, Eternal Bloom, 2013. Flameworked soft glass, wire, fieldstone. H 12, W 12, D 10. https://glassquarterly.wordpress.com/2013/07/05/opening-true-to-life-glass-exhibition-inspired-by-blaschka-flowers-debuts-at-pittsburgh-glass-center/

Yellow glass (2 December 2015):
Created in 1995, by the studio of Dale Chihuly, this chandelier is made of 900 pieces of hand-blown glass. Weighing more than 1,000 pounds and measuring nine feet long and six feet wide, it contains 500 feet of yellow glass neon tubing. It is displayed at the Columbus, Indiana Visitors Center. Photo courtesy of the Center, http://www.kid-at-art.com/htdoc/cglass.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration (1 December 2015):The former church of San Jacopo in Campo Corbolini in Florence, administered by the Knights of Malta (aka of Saint John) http://firenzeneidettagli.blogspot.com/2013/10/i-templari-di-san-jacopo-in-campo.html

November 2015
The Knights (30 November 2015):
“Fra Antonio Martelli, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Malta,” from about 1608. (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Photo courtesy of http://artery.wbur.org/2014/04/18/mfa-caravaggio

Supplemental Twitter illustration (29 November 2015): Francesco Lana de Terzi's flying boat concept c.1670, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Lana_de_Terzi

Supplemental Twitter illustration (28 November 2015):  Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 5r, 6r.

Veins of the Earth (27 November 2015): Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 5r, 6r.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (26 November 2015): Title page of Lana Terzi's Prodromo, Courtesy of Internet Archives.
https://ia700808.us.archive.org/zipview.php?zip=/4/items/olcovers598/olcovers598-L.zip&file=5980348-L.jpg

The Sincerest Form of Flattery (M.G. Grazzini, 25 November 2015):
Francesco Lana Terzi (1631-1687), Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons (Italy). http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lanadeterzi.jpg

Title page of Lana Terzi's Prodromo, Courtesy of Internet Archives.
https://ia700808.us.archive.org/zipview.php?zip=/4/items/olcovers598/olcovers598-L.zip&file=5980348-L.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (24 November 2015): The prophet Daniel from Augsburg Cathedral (c. 1065) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_stained_glass#/media/File:S%C3%BCddeutscher_Glasmaler_001.jpg

Lead Crystal (23 November 2015):
George Ravenscroft, Roemer type drinking glass c. 1677. Victoria and Albert Museum Collection. C.530-1936 (British Galleries, room 56d, case 13). http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O5164/drinking-glass-ravenscroft-george/

Supplemental Twitter illustration (22 November 2015): Printer's device, Thinker's Garden Blog. http://www.thethinkersgarden.com/2015/11/20/odd-truths-the-alchemical-life-of-glassmaker-antonio-neri/#.VlG-vdKrQsZ

Supplemental Twitter illustration (21 November 2015): Cover of "CONCIATORE: The life and Times of 17th Century Glassmaker Antonio Neri" by Paul Engle, 2014. ISBN-13: 978-0974352954 http://www.conciatore.org/p/blog-page_26.html

The Paracelsans (20 November 2015):
Aureolus Philipp Theophra Paracels, courtesy of ‘Images from the History of Medicine’, U.S. National Library of Medicine (NML). Portrait no. 5197.15, Record UI: 101433870, Image ID:186083
http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/luna/servlet/detail/NLMNLM~1~1~101433870~186083:Aureolus-Philipp-Theophra-Paracels?sort=Title%2CSubject_MeSH_Term%2CCreator_Person%2CCreator_Organization&qvq=w4s:/what/Paracelsus,%201493-1541;sort:Title%2CSubject_MeSH_Term%2CCreator_Person%2CCreator_Organization;lc:NLMNLM~1~1&mi=0&trs=25

Supplemental Twitter illustration (19 November 2015): Michelangelo Caravaggio, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto, c. 1597. Casino Ludovisi. Courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter,_Neptune_and_Pluto

Alchemist Priest (18 November 2015):
Ottavio Leoni Portrait of Francesco Maria del Monte (1578–1630). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottavio_Leoni

Michelangelo Caravaggio, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto, c. 1597. Casino Ludovisi. Courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter,_Neptune_and_Pluto

Supplemental Twitter illustration (17 November 2015): Praborna Mine (Prabornaz Mine) entrance, in Piedmont, Italy in the valley of Saint-Marcel (Val d’Aosta). Furnace slag in the area dates to 900 CE, but the area was settled as early as 8th cent. BCE. Photo courtesy of http://www.virtualexplorer.com.au/article/2004/101/walking-on-a-palaeo-ocean-floor/field.html

Manganese Overload (16 November 2015):
Santa Cristina Chapel, overlooking the valley near Monte di Voragno, Piedmont Italy. Photo courtesy of  http://www.cronoescursioni.it/foto.php?escursione=santacristina&num=1

Supplemental Twitter illustration (15 Nov.2015): Meurdrac, Marie -
Frontispiece from La chymie charitable et facile, en faveur des dames by Marie Meurdrac. Paris : L. d'Houry, 1687. courtesy of the Chemical Heritage Foundation via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Meurdrac#/media/File:Marie_Meurdrac_1687_Chymie_Dames.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (14 Nov.2015): Manganese Amberina Footed Compote Bowl Candy Dish http://www.ebay.com/itm/Viking-Manganese-Amberina-Footed-Compote-Bowl-Candy-Dish-/171995205645?hash=item280bb6900d

Neri's Other Rubino (13 Nov 2015):
Photo by Eric Hunt - Rhodochrosite, from the Sweet Home Mine, Colorado, private collection. Courtesy of Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodochrosite#mediaviewer/File:The_Searchlight_Rhodochrosite_Crystal.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (12 Nov.2015): "Arnaldus de Villanova" by Unknown derivative work by JPS68 - Scan book. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arnaldus_de_Villanova.jpg#/media/File:Arnaldus_de_Villanova.jpg

A Dominican Connection (11 Nov 2015):
An early 20th-century photograph of the old distillery at S.M. Novella, attr. unknown, courtesy of http://www.museumsinflorence.com/foto/farmaciasmn/image/7.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (10 Nov.2015): "Santa Maria Maggiore, la berta dettaglio" by Sailko - Own work. Licensed under CC BY 2.5 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Santa_Maria_Maggiore,_la_berta_dettaglio.jpg#/media/File:Santa_Maria_Maggiore,_la_berta_dettaglio.jpg

Benedetto Vanda  (9 Nov 2015):
Veduta della Badia Fiesolana - Gaspar Van Wittel detto Vanvitelli (1652/3-1736) Photo courtesy of Fra Coraggio, Occhio Fantastico Photostream, Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/fracoraggio/7706448508/

Supplemental Twitter illustration (8 Nov.2015): Jan van der Straet, Distillation, Boiling Water to Purify It, Engraved by Philip Galle.  http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Distillation-Boiling-Water-to-Purify-It-Engraved-by-Philip-Galle-Posters_i4052452_.htm?AID=2020321730

Supplemental Twitter illustration (7 Nov.2015): Titian used glazes of red lake to create the vivid crimson of the robes in "The Vendramin Family Venerating a Relic of the True Cross", completed 1550-60 (detail). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_pigment#/media/File:Titian_-_The_Vendramin_Family_Venerating_a_Relic_of_the_True_Cross_(detail)_-_WGA22811.jpg

Lake of Flowers (6 Nov 2015):
The Miracle of the immobility of Santa Lucia, 1596/7, by Leandro Bassano (1557–1622).
S Giorgio Maggiore Venice, 1st Altar from the entrance left. Photo credit: Basilica S Giorgio Maggiore Edizione della Basilica 2000 P.26, courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bassano,Leandro_Martyr_S_Lucia.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (5 Nov.2015): Photo of Sir Thomas Phillips, ca. 1860. from frontispiece of "Bibliotheca Phillippica: manuscripts on vellum and paper from the 9th to the 18th centuries from the celebrated collection formed by Sir Thomas Phillipps : the final selection." , New York : H.P. Kraus, c1979.  http://www.themorgan.org/collection/crusader-bible/provenance

Bibliomaniac (4 Nov 2015):
Broadway Tower, Worcestershire. The home of Phillipps' Middle Hill Press. Photo W. Lloyd MacKenzie, via Flickr @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/saffron_blaze/ via http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Broadway_Tower_2012.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (3 Nov.2015): Galileo Galilei, objective lens, Padua, late 1609
Glass, 58 mm, Later mounted in a commemorative frame (1677) , Museo Galileo, Florence, inv.2429 http://www.astronomy2009.org/resources/multimedia/images/detail/galileo_03/

Galileo and Glass (2 Nov 2015):
Justus Sustermans (1597-1681), portrait of Galileo Galilei, 1636 (detail). National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Justus_Sustermans_-_Portrait_of_Galileo_Galilei,_1636.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (1 Nov.2015):Rare Egyptian Rock Crystal Sphinx Ring, New Kingdom, Rammesside Period, 19th-20th Dynasty, 1295-1069 BC.  http://archaicwonder.tumblr.com/post/126694935607/rare-egyptian-rock-crystal-sphinx-ring-new

October 2015
Witch's Brew of Glass (31 Oct 2015):
Glass pumpkin evocative of chalcedony glass. Photo courtesy of  Smithsonian Museum store. http://www.smithsonianstore.com/art-glass-pumpkin-80481.html?&search=pumpkin

Ribbed vessel, chalcedony glass, seventeenth century, 20 cm.
Collection of the  Museo del Monastero di Santa Giulia, Brescia
Courtesy of Fondazione Marilena Ferrari. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-1479.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration (29 Oct.2015): Antonio Neri, "L'Arte Vetraria…" (Firenze: Giunti, 1612), p. i. (title page) https://books.google.com/books?id=XcnYJuJpMbEC

Neri and The Inquisition (28 October 2015):
Inquisition coat of arms, 1573. “EXURGE DOMINE ET JUDICA CAUSAM TUAM. PSALM. 73”. Enciclopedia Española. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Escudo_inquisicion.gif

Supplemental Twitter illustration (27 Oct.2015): Cup with Gilded Manikin Handles, around 1550. Rock crystal, gold ornaments, 19 x 25 cm. Museo degli Argenti, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. http://www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

Solid Water (26 Oct. 2015):
Photo of Hawaiian waves (c) by Clark Little. http://www.paigeandchris.com/2009/05/one-with-wave-photography.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration (25 Oct.2015):  Detail of fanciful grotesque style frescoes in the Casino di San Marco (c. 1630-40) , Antonio Neri worked here about 1600. http://www.polomuseale.firenze.it/en/mostre/mostra.php?t=50c77330f1c3bcfc16000000

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (24 Oct.2015): Gilded bronze mount with white marble and black glass eye. Courtesy of The Atkinson Museum, Southport, UK.  http://www.theatkinson.co.uk/whats-on/museum/egyptology/  @AtkinsonThe

Black is Beautiful (23 Oct.2015):
Black glass cameo vase, c. 1900, Thomas Webb. http://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/20750888_thomas-webb-black-cameo-glass-vase-c-1900

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (22 Oct.2015): Glass mosaic ceiling of San Giovanni Baptistery, florence Italy. Image courtesy of  http://alfa-img.com/show/florence-baptistery-mosaics.html

San Giovanni (21 Oct. 2015):
Giacomo Brogi (1822-1881), "Florence - Church of San Giovani, the Baptistry". Catalogue # 3022. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brogi,_Giacomo_(1822-1881)_-_n._3022_-_Firenze_-_Chiesa_di_San_Giovanni_o_Battistero.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (20 Oct.2015): From the folk ballad Captain Ward and the Rainbow, or Ward the Pirate, (Child ballad 287).   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Ward_and_the_Rainbow

Pirates! (19 Oct. 2015):
Sea fight with Barbary corsairs, c. 1581, Lorenzo Castro. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_Castro,_Lorenzo_-_A_Sea_Fight_with_Barbary_Corsairs_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (18 Oct. 2015): Jan Steen's 'The Doctor's Visit', showing a ribbon pregnancy test from the mid-1600s. Courtesy of http://www.essentialbaby.com.au/conception/trying-to-conceive/the-weird-and-wonderful-history-of-the-pregnancy-test-20130929-2umte.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (17 Oct. 2015): Giambologna's horse models were created for the equestrian statue of Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, which was finished in 1594. http://store.metmuseum.org/sculpture/giambologna-medici-walking-horse-sculpture/invt/06060503

Alessandro Neri  (16 October 2015):
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio); Christ Shown to the People (Ecce Homo), c.1570–76; oil on canvas; 43 x 37 5/16 in. (109.2 x 94.8 cm); Saint Louis Art Museum, Museum Purchase 10:1936. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Titian_-_Christ_Shown_to_the_People_(Ecce_Homo).jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (15 Oct. 2015): Bernardino Poccetti, 1610.  Strage degli innocenti (dettaglio), spedale degli Innocenti, firenze. Image courtesy https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/Bernardino_poccetti%2C_strage_degli_innocenti_%28dettaglio%29%2C_spedale_degli_Innocenti%2C_firenze%2C_1610.jpg

A Gift for the Innocent (14 October 2015)
One of the distinctive roundels designed by Andrea della Robbia for the facade of the Ospedale degli Innocenti. Andrea della Robbia, Florence. Photo: Kaushal Groningen, Netherlands 2007 http://kaushalparikh.aminus3.com/image/2007-07-24.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (13 Oct. 2015): Aquamanile, attributed to Roger von Helmarshausen, which may be the pseudonym of Theophilus Presbyter (fl. ca. 1070-1125). He started his career as a goldsmith in the Meuse valley, Cologne.
Image courtesy of http://www.quivis.nl/?p=32

The Purse of Envy (12 October 2015)
Antonio Neri, "The Mineral Gold" Tesoro del Mondo,  (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600), f. 5r.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (11 Oct. 2015): Antonio Neri (1576-1614), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (10 Oct. 2015): Title page of Antonio Neri’s L’Arte Vetraria, 1612. Image courtesy of Google Books http://books.google.com/books?id=XcnYJuJpMbEC

Antonio Who? (9 Oct 2015):
Neri Medallion, Specola, Florence (manipulated to remove parallax distortion, and correct color) Original courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Specola,_medaglione_di_antonio_neri.JPG

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (8 Oct. 2015): Detail of "Birth of Venus" by Sandro Botticelli, 1486. courtesy of Uffizi Gallery, Florence, via hhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandro_Botticelli#/media/File:Sandro_Botticelli_-_La_nascita_di_Venere_-_Google_Art_Project_-_edited.jpg

The Duke's Mouthwash (7 Oct. 2015):
Ferdinando de’ Medici (1549-1609), Scipione Pulzone (1544 - 1598), Private collection. http://www.artfact.com/auction-lot/scipione-pulzone,-portrait-of-ferdinando-de-medi-1116-c-d137af3e89

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (6 Oct. 2015): Unknown Attribution, please contact paul@www.conciatore.org with information. http://sainteliaschurch.blogspot.com/2011/04/why-dates-of-easter-differ.html

A Fast Calendar (5 Oct 2015): "Seasons Clock" by 'Proxy One' courtesy of http://www.worth1000.com/entries/528253/seasons-clock

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (4 Oct. 2015): Victor Mahu, "Interior With An Alchemist And His Assistants At Work" oil on Canvas.Grohmann Museum. http://mattmatter.com/blog/ , also
http://www.wikigallery.org/

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (3 Oct. 2015): Antwerp city plan from about 1598 (Antwerpen na de val, rond 1598) by  J.Hoefnagel. Image courtesy of http://users.telenet.be/historysite/images/kaart%20antw7a%20copy.jpg via http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?p=33990030&nojs=1

The Blue Tower (2 Oct 2015):
Fig 1:De Blauwe Toren 1865, Jozef Linnig, Museum Plantin-Moretus / Prentenkabinet,  nr. 3359/18 28/66
(photo by Bart Huysmans) http://www.collectieantwerpen.be/component/option,com_memorix/task,result/searchplugin,categorie/Itemid,2/Categorie,tekening/cp,41/lang,fr/pp,40/mrxpopup,1/CollectionID,1/PhotoID,FAM001005136/RecordID,974067/ResultRecord,405/resultplugin,detail/do,5/

Fig 2: Antwerpen, het Arsenaal, 1601-1653
Circle of Jan Wildens, Pen and brown ink, brown wash on paper. RKD Netherlands Institute for Art History
Illustration number 0000053843. https://rkd.nl/explore/images/27381

Fig 3: Blauwe Toren, Edmond Fierlants
Antwerpen, Belgium, 1860 Photograph, Courtesy of Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience
http://www.sepiatown.com/812664/Blauwe-Toren-by-Fierlants-Antwerpen-Belgium

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (1 Oct. 2015):Antonio Neri, "Terra-Pietre" in Tesoro del Mondo, f. 4r.MS Ferguson 67. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

September 2015
The Art of Metals (30 Sept. 2015):
Fig. 1: Antonio Neri, "Ars Preparatio Metallor[um]" in Tesoro del Mondo, f. 8r.MS Ferguson 67, f. 10r (detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Fig 2: Alessandro Fei (Barbieri) "Goldsmith's Workshop" c. 1572. Studiolo of Francesco I de' Medici , Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/a/acls/heb90034.0001.001?trgt=p_230;view=fulltext

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (29 Sept. 2015): The alchemist facilitates the growth of the metallic seed towards its two fruits or perfections—silver and gold. Emblem twelve from Michael Maier's Symbola Aureae Mensae, Frankfurt, 1617. http://www.aaroncheak.com/on-hermeticism/

Alchemy of Plants (28 Sept. 2015):
Antonio Neri, "Arts Preparatio frugu vel Piantar." in Tesoro del Mondo, f. 9r.Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (27 Sept. 2015): Jacopo Ligozzi, Allegory of 'Fortuna'  late 16th century, Florence, oil on panel. Uffizi Gallery. https://artislimited.wordpress.com/2012/12/16/alchemy-and-the-arts-florence-exhibition-explores-the-link-between-art-science-magic-and-technology/

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (26 Sept. 2015): Antonio Neri's family arms, from his childhood residence in Florence. Ceiling panel of entrance vestibule, 27 Borgo Pinti, Florence. Neri family coat of arms. Photo by Paul Engle, 2011.

Top Physician (25 Sept. 2015):
Frontispiece from Ricettario Fiorentino 1597 ed, by Neri di Jacopo Neri, Giovan Battista Benadù, Francesco Rosselli and Giovanni Galletti. Courtesy of Wellcome Trust. http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/result.html?*sform=wellcome-images&_IXACTION_=query&%24%3Dtoday=&_IXFIRST_=1&%3Did_ref=M0011854&_IXSPFX_=templates/t&_IXFPFX_=templates/t&_IXMAXHITS_=1

Antonio Neri's family arms, from his childhood residence in Florence. Ceiling panel of entrance vestibule, 27 Borgo Pinti, Florence. Neri family coat of arms. Photo by Paul Engle, 2011.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (24 Sept. 2015): Bread shovel of "Folco Rinuccini, the distiller", 18th century Florence,  @AccademiaCrusca courtesy of http://www.jessewaugh.com/blog/2012/12/30/art-and-alchemy-exhibition-at-the-uffizi

Art and Science (23 Sept. 2015): Jacopo Ligozzi,1518,  fanciful glass vessels, ink and watercolor on paper. Galleria degli Uffizi. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-12537.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (22 Sept. 2015): The Salsola sativa plant, (Neri’s “Barilla”, now classified as Halogeton sativus), in Adolphus Ypey, Vervolg op de Afbeeldingen der artseny-gewassen met derzelver Nederduitsche en Latynsche beschryvingen (Amsterdam: J. C. Sepp en Zoon, 1813). Hand-colored engraving.

Lixiviation (21 Sept. 2015):
Salsola Kali plant used in Mediterranean glassmaking. Chenopodiaceae - Salsola kali. From: Flora batava by Jan Kops and others. Amsterdam, J.C. Sepp, 1807, volume 2 (plate 133). Hand-coloured engraving (sheet 225 x 278 mm).

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (20 Sept. 2015): Alchemist's workshop, detail from the Title page of Beschreibung allerfürnemisten mineralischen Ertzt unnd Bergkwercks Arten, by Lazarus Ercker, d. 1594. Frankfurt am Mayn : [Joannem Schmidt in Verlegung Sigmundt Feyerabends], 1580. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alchemists_Workshop_detail_from_Title_Page_AQ24_(3).tif

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (19 Sept. 2015): Illustration of a dissection from the Fasciculo di Medicina, ed by Johannes Ketham, 1493. more here https://jenshermanroberts.wordpress.com/2013/03/16/the-coolest-thing-youll-see-all-day-the-renaissance-anatomy-pop-up-book/

Deadly Fumes (18 Sept. 2015):  Nikolaus Alexander  Mair von Landshut, 1605. (active ca. 1485, d 1520). From a series of six engravings of memento mori. Courtesy of The Trustees of the British Museum, Department: Prints & Drawings, Registration number: 1893,1020.4

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (17 Sept. 2015): 
Jan Matejko (1838–1893) "Alchemist Michael Sendivogius".Date 1867, oil on panel  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alchemik_Sedziwoj_Matejko.JPG

A Network of Alchemists: (16 Sept 2015):
The Alchemist 1558, Pieter Brugle the Elder. British Museum, London, http://www.wikiart.org/en/pieter-bruegel-the-elder/the-alchemist

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (15 Sept. 2015): Sidon, by David Roberts (1796-1864). http://www.keyway.ca/htm2012/20120224.htm

The Discovery of Glass (14 Sept. 2015): Giovan Maria Butteri, Studiolo of Francesco I de' Medici , c.1572 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Studiolo,_pitture_10_giovanni_maria_butteri,_Scoperta_del_vetro.JPG

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (13 Sept. 2015):   Emblem 3 from Michael Maier - Atalanta Fugiens Image courtesy of Wikimedia commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Michael_Maier_Atalanta_Fugiens_Emblem_03.jpeg Women such as 17th century Marie Meurdrac worked in chemistry, although poorly represented in the literature. Read more here: http://www.womenalchemists.com/Marie_Meurdrac.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (12 Sept. 2015): Grand Ducal Workshops, Panel with Vase of Flowers, early 1600s; pietre dure mosaic on black marble ground. Florence, Museo dell’ Opificio delle Pietre Dure. http://www.dia.org/exhibitions/medici/MediaRoom/pages/programs.html

Stonework (11 Sept. 2015):
Antonio Neri, Tesoro del Mondo, 1598-1600, f. 7v, "Ars Preparatio Lapidum"(detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (10 Sept. 2015): Title page of  "Essai sur l'art de la verrerie"  Paris, 1800 by Pierre Loysel 332 pages https://books.google.com/books?id=A08UAAAAQAAJ

A Very Good Run: (9 Sept. 2015): Title Page of L'Arte Vetraria, 1612, by Antonio Neri. for more see. http://www.cmog.org/article/antonio-neri-l-arte-vetraria-1612

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (8 Sept. 2015): Don Giovanni di Cosimo I de’ Medici, courtesy of Wikimedia commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Don_giovanni_de_medici.jpg

Don Giovanni (7 Sept. 2015):
Don Giovanni di Cosimo I de’ Medici, attribution unknown,  courtesy of  Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena http://pinacotecanazionale.siena.it/?attachment_id=216

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (6 Sept. 2015): Wood cut of a diagram showing the principle pieces of apparatus used in alchemy. Illustration from 'Le Vray et Methodique Cours de la Physique Resolutive Vulgairement dite Chymie' ('The True and Methodical Course in Resolutive Physick, Commonly called Chemistry'), by Annibal Barlet, published in Paris in 1657. Although the book contains a great deal of alchemical jargon, it is for the most part good practical pharmaceutical chemistry. Barlet gave regular chemical courses in Paris, attended by the diarist John Evelyn (1620-1706) amongst others. Courtesy of Getty Images http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/woodcut-of-a-diagram-showing-the-principle-pieces-of-news-photo/90766123

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (5 Sept. 2015): The Alchemist's Experiment takes Fire, 1687
Hendrick Heerschop, Dutch. Courtesy of the Chemical Heritage Foundation via wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hendrik_Heerschop#/media/File:The_Alchemist%E2%80%99s_Experiment_Takes_Fire_1687_CHF_fa_2000.001.276.JPG

Alchemy in the Kitchen (4 Sept. 2015):
Antonio Neri, 1508-1600, Tesoro del Mondo, "Ars Preparatio Animalium”, MS Ferguson 67, f. 10r (detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (3 Sept. 2015): The alchemist (Adriaen Van Ostade) http://www.salvatorefiorillo.it/dailylife.html

The Dregs (2 Sept. 2015):
"The struggle of fixed and volatile" allegorical illustration from Splendor solis [detail] 1582. British Library, London, (Harley MS 3469). Courtesy of http://bordel.haghn.com/Art/Illustration/Splendor%20Solis/

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (1 Sept. 2015): Salsola kali, fluorescent-labelled Rubisco: Hattersley et al., 1977. http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/chenopod.htm

August 2015
Glass Salt (31 August 2015):
Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert eds., L'Encyclopédie, Vol. 10 (1772), “Wood Glass Making,” Raking Out Baked Frit (Verrerie – Verrerie en bois ou petite verrerie à pivette) fig. 15.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (30 August 2015): "An Apothecary in His Laboratory" Thomas Wyck - 1616-1677 https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAUQjhxqFQoTCJSWmtDo0McCFYVVPgodjdsK8A&url=http%3A%2F%2Fscience.kennesaw.edu%2F~jdirnber%2FscienceI%2Flecture%2Foutline%2F&ei=WfjiVdSFKoWr-QGNt6uADw&psig=AFQjCNF5enOrI8xp1hSM3447IadWGrUS9A&ust=1441024473061271

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (29 August 2015): Sulfur crystal, from Agrigento, Sicily, Italy Photo by Eric Hunt 2006, courtesy of Wikimedia foundation https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Large_Sulfur_Crystal.jpg

Sulfur (28 August 2015)
Alchemical Symbol for Sulfur, created 2014 by Paul Engle in Photoshop. This image is in the public domain and may be used freely without attribution.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (27 August 2015): The Small Limekiln (Landscape with Morra Players) by Pieter van Laer (1599–after 1641) - Web Gallery of Art. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboccianti#/media/File:Pieter_van_Laer_-_Landscape_with_Morra_Players_-_WGA12369.jpg

Lime (26 August 2015)
Vintage 1920's Water Glass Label. Photo credit: HelenLaRuse
https://www.etsy.com/listing/54253677/vintage-1920s-water-glass-label-egg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (25 August 2015): Georg Agricola's book:"Of mining and smelting" (1556) shows a saltpeter workshop. A) Pan for the reduction of the saltpeter brine. www.musketeer.ch

Saltpeter (24 August 2015): Saltpeter beds, 1683 English ed. Beschreibung allerfurnemisten mineralischen Ertzt by Lazarus Ercker. (Prague, 1574). Page 133 in this edition: http://books.google.com/books?id=cJZQAAAAcAAJ

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (23 August 2015): Glassblower's tools including optic mold. Image courtesy of http://www.glassblower.info/optic-molds.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (22 August 2015): Saturn, ruler of the signs of Aquarius and Capricorn, miniature attributed to Cristoforo de Predis (1440-before 1486) from the astrological book De Sphaera, lat manuscript 209, folio 5, verse, parchment, ca 1470. Detail. Italy, 15th century. http://symboldictionary.net/library/graphics/symbols/glossarysaturnus.jpg

Sulfur of Saturn (21 August 2015): Peter Paul Rubens c. 1630,  “Abundance (Abundantia).” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abundantia

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (20 August 2015): Alchemical symbol for Tartar, http://www.symbols.com/symbols/T

Tartar Salt (19 August 2015): Potassium bitartrate crystals. Photo Courtesy of Vintner’s Cellar Waterloo http://www.vintnerscellarwaterloo.com/article/29/wine_diamonds_or_crystals_in_a_bottle.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (18 August 2015): Recovering and concentrating Vitriol from a mining operation in the 16th century, from Agricola, De Re Metalica (1580) http://www.chokier.com/IMAGES/ROCHER/Agricola-De_re_metallica-Couperose.jpg

Vitriol of Venus (17 August 2015): Copper Sulfate (vitriol of copper), courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Copper_sulfate.jpg Photo by: ‘Stephanb’ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Stephanb

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (16 August 2015): Add 10302 fol.37v Alchemy master preparing ingredients, from 'The Ordinal of Alchemy' by Thomas Norton, c.1477 (vellum), English School, (15th century) / British Library, London, U. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Preparation_of_experiments_-_The_Ordinal_of_Alchemy_(c.1477),_f.37v_-_BL_Add_MS_10302.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (15 August 2015): Rare example of natural mineral forn of Sal Ammoniac,  former Ravat Village, Yagnob River, joint of Zeravshan and Gissar Range, Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd),Tajikistan. Photo by Rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com – CC-BY-SA-3.0, courtesy of wikimedia commons.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sal_ammoniac#/media/File:Salammoniac-49073.jpg

Sal Ammoniac (14 August 2015)
Alchemical symbols used to denote sal ammoniac. Paul Engle 2014, Photoshop, (after Medicinisch-Chymisch- und Alchemistisches Oraculum, Ulm, 1755).

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (13 August 2015): Nicolas Lemery, A course of chymistry… (London,      1698), Titlepage.Image courtesy of Edward Worth Library http://alchemyandchemistry.edwardworthlibrary.ie/chymistry-beyond-the-universities/chymical-textbooks/

Crocus Martis (12 August 2015)
From Medicinisch-Chymisch- und Alchemistisches Oraculum, Ulm, 1755. Courtesy of The Alchemy Website, http://www.levity.com/alchemy/alchemical_symbols06.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (11 August 2015): Renaissance instruction in preparation of chemicals. From Annibal Barlet, Le Vray et methodique cours de Chymie (Paris, 1653) Image courtesy of U.S. National Library of Medicine http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/paracelsus/universities.html

Alchemy School (10 August 2015)
Frontispiece woodcut from Zadith ben Hamuel De Chemia Senioris, 1566. See http://www.levity.com/alchemy/amclglr5.html.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (9 August 2015): Spherical bezoar stones, one from unknown animal, 1551-1750 the other (right) from a camel. Photo Photo number: L0058457, Wellcome Trust Images, courtesy of Wikimedia commons.  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spherical_bezoar_stone_from_unknown_animal,_1551-1750_Wellcome_L0058457.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (8 August 2015): Saint Francis of Assisi Church , Goa India. Photo courtesy of http://paradiseintheworld.com/goa-india-breathtaking/

Filippo Sassetti (7 August 2015)
Goa, India 1509. “Goa fortissima India urbs in Christianorum potestatem anno salutis 1509 deuenit.” [detail] From Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum I, p. 54. First Latin edition of was published in 1572. (After an unidentified Portuguese manuscript).

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (6 August 2015): Roman blown-glass cinerary urn, dated between 1st and 3rd centuries AD. Height: 31 cm. Base diameter: 10 cm. Rim's diameter: 15.5 cm. Lid's height: 6 cm. Location: National Archaeological Museum of Spain (gift of Alfonso de Borbón y Borbón, 1990). Photo by Luis García (Zaqarbal), 3 December 2008. Courtesy of Wikimedia Foundation  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Urna_cineraria_romana_de_vidrio_(M.A.N._Inv.1990-69-150)_01.jpg

Decolorization of Glass
Image of two colored glass discs in green and magenta. Paul Engle, 2013, Photoshop.


Reports from Parnassus
The Parnassus is a fresco painting by Raphael in the Raphael Rooms ("Stanze di Raffaello"), in the Palace of the Vatican in Rome, painted at the commission of Pope Julius II in 1511. [detail] courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Parnassus#mediaviewer/File:Rafael_-_El_Parnaso_(Estancia_del_Sello,_Roma,_1511).jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (2 August 2015): detail "Wood-burning glasshouse", From Denis Diderot's Encyclopedia, 1751-72. http://glassian.org/Making/Diderot/crown_glasshouse.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (1 August 2015) Illustration of a glass furnace from Vannoccio Biringuccio, De la Pirotechnia 1540. Image courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass http://www.cmog.org/article/vannoccio-biringuccio-de-la-pirotechnia-1540

July 2015

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (31 July 2015): Vannoccio Biringuccio as depicted in the Specola Museum in Florence. Photo by I, Sailko 2009.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vannoccio_Biringuccio#/media/File:Specola,_medaglione_di_vannoccio_biringucci.JPG

The Art of Fire
Antonio Neri, MS Fergusin 67, 1598-1600, ink and water color. Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, f. 22r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (30 July 2015): Lotiform Cup, Third Intermediate Period, Dynasty 22, ca. 945–715 B.C.. Egyptian Egyptian faience; H. 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm) Purchase, Edward S. Harkness Gift,1926, Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.  http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/26.7.971

Turquoise Glass
Turquoise glass stamp of calif Mustadi 1170-1180. Photo by PHGCOM, 2009, at British Museum. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Turquoise_glass_stamp_of_calif_Mustadi_1170_1180.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (28 July 2015): Hall of Mirrors, The Golestan Palace, Tehran, Iran. Photo courtesy of http://historicaliran.blogspot.com/2011/03/golestan-palace.html

Olearius on Glass
Adam Olearius (1599-1671), 18th century engr, Attr. unknown, source: http://www.aschersleben-tourismus.de/cms/persoenlichkeiten/adam-olearius/  (Probably a copy of: 1669 oil on canvas portrait by Juriaen Ovens (1623-1678) ) see: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adam-Olearius.jpg .

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (26 July 2015): The Alchemist at Work, copy of an illustration from 'Coelum Philosophorum' by Philippus Ulstadius, Paris 1544, used in a 'History of Magic', published late 19th century (woodcut). http://www.magnoliabox.com/art/387262/the-alchemist-at-work-copy-of-an-illustration-from-coelum

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (25 July 2015): Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus ) This image appeared in the book Two Hundred German Men by Ludwig Bechstein, Leipzig, 1854. Source: http://historymedren.about.com/od/picturegalleries/ig/Paracelsus-Picture-Gallery/para_200ger.htm

Donato Altomare
Donato Altomare, engr. C. Biendi,  from "Biografia degli uomini illustri del regno di Napoli," There is an image online here: http://www.horrorcrime.com/arte_e_storia_2009/citta/autori/donato_antonio_altomare.htm

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (21 July 2015):  Giambologna, sculpture: The Rape of the Sabine Women "Giambologna sabine". Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.5 via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Giambologna_sabine.jpg#/media/File:Giambologna_sabine.jpg

The Neighbors
"Portrait of Giamologna"by Hendrick Goltzius, Teylers Museum, courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Goltzius-Bologna.png

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (21 July 2015): Litografia di un disegno di L. Gelati raffigurante Porta a Pinti ( AMFCE, 8502 ). Courtesy of Archivio Storico del Comune di Firenze http://wwwext.comune.fi.it/archiviostorico/narratives/000004/000005.html

San Giusto Alle Mura
Window of  Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral, Florence, Italy. Window detail of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence. Photo by Georges Jansoone, courtesy  of Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Stained_glass_windows_in_Santa_Maria_del_Fiore_(Florence)#mediaviewer/File:Santa_Maria_del_Fiore_colour_glass_(1623723568).jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (19 July 2015):Renaissance instruction in preparation of chemicals in a university setting. From Annibal Barlet, Le Vray et methodique cours de Chymie (Paris, 1653), p.217. https://archive.org/details/levrayetmethodiq00barl There is also a nice synopsis of early university alchemy here http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/paracelsus/universities.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (18 July 2015): Japanese "shupua cup" -made of silicone rubber (not glass) Courtesy of Glass Onion's Blog  http://glaoni.exblog.jp/tags/shupua/

Vitrum Flexile
Drentwett, Abraham, the elder, German, c.1647-1727 Vulcan Making Arms for Achilles, while Venus and Cupid Look On, n.d.; Pen and brown ink with brush and gray wash, over traces of graphite, on vellum, tipped onto ivory laid paper; 88 x 138 mm, The Art Institute of Chicago, The Leonora Hall Gurley Memorial Collection, 1922.2078. http://www.artic.edu/aic/resources/resource/2694?search_id=1&index=0

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (16 July 2015)"Montpellier Faculte medecine" Photo by Vpe at French Wikipedia - Transferred from fr.wikipedia to Commons.. Licensed under CC BY 1.0 via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Montpellier_Faculte_medecine.jpg#/media/File:Montpellier_Faculte_medecine.jpg

Montpellier
Engraved view of Montpellier, France, in the seventeenth century. German, 1660. Attribution unknown, http://www.museeprotestant.org/en/notice/the-last-religious-wars/

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (14 July 2015) Frontispiece from Pierfilippo Covoni, Don Antonio de' Medici Al Casino Di San Marco, Firenze, 1892. Image from personal collection of Paul Engle. There is a public domain copy here: http://books.google.com/books?id=5-sVAAAAYAAJ

Francesco and Bianca
"Antique print" Bianca Cappello and Grand Duke Francesco (with Don Antonio) -attriburtion unknown, 19th century. http://www.ebay.com/itm/Antica-Stampa-BIANCA-CAPPELLO-E-IL-GRANDUCA-FRANCESCO-DE-MEDICI-1870-Old-Print-/160798258706

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (12 July 2015) 1663, Alchemist. Cornelis Bega (1631-1664), Oil on panel, 36 x 32 cm, J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. http://chushka.com/photopotato/?p=1722

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (11 July 2015) Medieval era enamel beaker once owned by Piero de' Medici, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Cloisters, New York. http://joelgarten.com/blog/?p=171

The Material of All Enamel
Léonard Limosin, Allegory of Catherine de' Medici as Juno, French, 1573, Polychrome enamel  on copper and silver. Courtesy Getty Museum http://search.getty.edu/museum/records/musobject?objectid=1340

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (08 July 2015) Don Giovanni di Cosimo I de’ Medici, attribution unknown,  courtesy of  Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena http://pinacotecanazionale.siena.it/?attachment_id=216

Don Giovanni in Flanders
Spanish attack on a Flemish village, Attr:  Pieter Snayers. Courtesy of http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Peter_Snayers_-_Spanischer_%C3%9Cberfall_auf_ein_fl%C3%A4misches_Dorf.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (7 July 2015) "Twitter bird vector" courtesy of Vectors Land http://www.vectorsland.com/vector/twitter-bird-38102.html

True Colors
The European Roller [Pica Marina] Photo: Mehmet Goren, Pica Marina. Courtesy of Mehmet Goren. http://www.trakus.org/kods_bird/uye/?fsx=2fsdl15@d&idx=4193#.Uij5udKsjTo

Pica marina, Ulisse Aldrovandi, "Le tavole acquerellate di Ulisse Aldrovandi Tavole vol. 002 Animali ..." Manoscritto, Parnassus Scientiarum, Catalogue of the Waller Collection of History of Science and Medicine, Edited by Marco Beretta and Andrea Scotti Interface editor Daniele Nuzzo, Courtesy  of the University of Bologna. http://www.filosofia.unibo.it/aldrovandi/pinakesweb/compdetail.asp?compid=3521

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (5 July 2015) “An Alchemist in his Workshop,” by David Teniers II, depicts alchemy in the 17th century. Courtesy of Chemical Heritage Foundation, via http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/01/science/01alch.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

The Portland Vase 
Portland Vase image courtesy of Wikimedia commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portland_Vase_BM_Gem4036_n4.jpg


Wedgwood's Sydney Cove Medallion, image courtesy of http://www.wedgwoodsociety.org.au/about_us.html

The Cardinal's Ceiling
Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, f.xxviii-v. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Michelangelo Caravaggio, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto, c. 1597. Casino Ludovisi. Courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter,_Neptune_and_Pluto

June 2015
Supplemental Twitter illustration: (28 June 2015) View of Murano 1864, steel engr. pub. Leitch - Blackie and Son, London, Paternoster Row, Glasgow and Edinburgh  https://www.etsy.com/listing/112443433/italy-view-of-murano-glass-making-town?ref=market

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (27 June 2015) Ebay, "Rare!! Vintage antique 20 carat Gold finger Ring Arsi Rajasthan India"  http://www.ebay.com/itm/Rare-Vintage-antique-20-carat-Gold-finger-Ring-Arsi-Rajasthan-India-/380447781358

Thévenot In India
Very old mirror ring with inlaid foiled glass late 18th to early 19th c Rajasthan India, Ethnic Jewels Forum.
http://ethnicjewels.ning.com/photo/mirror-ring

Supplemental Twitter illustration: "An alchemical Laboratory" from The Story of Alchemy and the Beginnings of Chemistry, by M. M. Pattison Muir (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1913), frontispiece.  http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14218/14218-h/14218-h.htm

Alchemist Priest
Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, "Brother Mauritio" detail from, f. 19r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental Twitter illustration: Blätter des Manns Walfarn, by Alois Auer, Vienna: Imperial Printing Office, 1853. Courtesy of the Wikimedia foundation: Nature print, (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nature_print,_Alois_Auer_.jpg).

Waxing Moon Reprise
Allain Manesson Mallet "Description de L'Univers" (Frankfurt: 1719)
Illustration: "Der Mont. – Lune"

Supplemental Twitter illustration: Thomas Rowlandson,  “Dr Syntax in the Glasshouse”, March 1820. from: The Second Tour of Dr Syntax, In Search of Consolation; a Poem. (by William Combe) Pub. R. Ackermann. Image  courtesy of http://www.antiquemapsandprints.com/SCANSB/B-1094.jpg

Weights and Measures
"The Proclamation regarding Weights and Measures A.D. 1556" by Ford Madox Brown, a mural at Manchester Town Hall. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BrownManchesterMuralProclamation.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: Ancient Glass Blog of The Allaire Collection
The Victoria and Albert Museum.  Horn, Netherlands (probably Middelburg or Antwerp), 1550-1600.
https://ancientglass.wordpress.com/museums-glass-collections-and-exhibitions/the-victoria-and-albert-museum/horn-netherlands-probably-middelburg-or-antwerp-1550-1600/

The Old Post Road
A coach of the middle of the seventeenth century: from an engraving by John Dunstall.
A Student's History of England, v. 2 (of 3),1509-1689, by Samuel Rawson Gardiner
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/40192/40192-h/40192-h.htm

Supplemental Twitter illustration: Photograph by Mike Peel (www.mikepeel.net).
Hedwig glass beaker in the British Museum. 1559 4-14.1 (beaker); 1903 7-21 3 (fragment). Courtesy of Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_glass#/media/File:Hedwig_glass_1.jpg

Nasir al- Mulk Mosque in Shiraz, Iran. Photo by Domiri Mohammad Reza Ganji, courtesy of
http://www.oldskull.net/2015/03/mohammad-reza-el-fotografo-de-las-mezquitas/

Weekly Blog recap (Twitter illustration)
'Callot style figure'  Arnold van Westerhout, 1687.  courtesy of British Museum, via http://bibliodyssey.blogspot.com/2008/10/alchemy-laboratories.html

Travels To The East
Jean de Thévenot, from "Relation d'un voyage fait au Levant" Frontispiece, Thévenot, Jean de. Relation d’un voyage fait au Levant. Paris: L. Billaine, 1665 Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_de_Th%C3%A9venot_(1664).jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: Barque sailing ship, source and artist unknown. courtesty of  http://www.doversociety.org.uk/history-scrapbook/trades-occupations/sea-and-shipping

Neri in Pisa
Euer by Niccolo Sisti, Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche in Faenza. Photo 2009, Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, the Wikimedia OTRS system, ticket #2009032510047417. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pisa_Nicol%C3%B2_Sisti_1590c_21511.JPG


Supplemental Twitter illustration: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Orto_botanico_di_Pisa_-_old_instiitute.JPG Orto botanico di Pisa - old institute building. Pisa, Italy. Photo by "Daderot" 2006, GDFL.

We Were Trojans
Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo or 'Giandomenico Tiepolo' (1727-1804), "Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy", Wikimedia foundation, (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Giovanni_Domenico_Tipeolo,_Procession_of_the_Trojan_Horse_in_Troy._1773..jpg)

Artificial Gems Reprise
Pendant, paste gems, Portugal ca. 1750. V&A acquisition nr.M.68-1962 http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O113043/pendant-unknown/

Dear Friends
The library of the University of Leiden (1610), where Christoph Plantin worked from 1583 to 1585. Picture courtesy of Frédéric Barbier http://histoire-du-livre.blogspot.com/2012_04_01_archive.html (28 Avril 2012). University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in ''Stedeboeck der Nederlanden'', Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649.

Della Casa's Notebooks
Spine of Agnolo della Casa, BNCF MS. Palatino 867 [756 - 21, 2.] Serie Targioni, II, v. 3. Courtesy of Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze.

May 2015
The Importance of Being Diligent 
Fennec fox pup, attribution unknown, born at the Everland Zoo in South Korea in September of 2008. http://www.zooborns.com/zooborns/2009/02/whats-cuter-than-a-fennec-fox.html

A Matter of Plagiarism (M.G. Grazzini)
Francesco Lana Terzi (1631-1687), Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons (Italy). http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lanadeterzi.jpg

Title page of Lana Terzi's Prodromo, Courtesy of Internet Archives.
https://ia700808.us.archive.org/zipview.php?zip=/4/items/olcovers598/olcovers598-L.zip&file=5980348-L.jpg

Rosichiero Glass
Venice Sunset, Artist unknown, courtesy of "free wallpaper" at http://www.artworkslimitededitions.co.uk/desktopwallpaper.php - Please contact me if you know the artist.

Excellent presentation on color by the University of Oslo:
http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/kjemi/KJM3100/v07/undervisningsmateriale/kjm3100_2007_09_colour_b.pdf

Don Antonio de’ Medici
Frontispiece from Pierfilippo Covoni, Don Antonio de' Medici Al Casino Di San Marco, Firenze, 1892. Image from personal collection of Paul Engle. There is a public domain copy here: http://books.google.com/books?id=5-sVAAAAYAAJ

Casino di San Marco
Courtesy of ARCHIDIS - Fondo disegni tecnici del Comune di Firenze. Direction de Toscana place de Florence. Coupe du casin de S. Marc, prise sur la ligne. Cart. 5 tavola 1. sul retro: classe 1° Casino di S. Marco. n. 3 piante del casino della Livia - cav. Mazzei. Amfce 0533 (cass. 16 ins. A2). (http://opac.comune.firenze.it/).

A Deeper Accomplishment     
From Antonio Neri, "Treasure of the World" MS Ferguson 67, f. 22r.

The Neri Chapel
The Vision of St Bernard (c. 1598), by Pietro Perugino (1448–1523). Current location: The Pinakothek Museums in the Kunstareal Munich. Image courtesy of Wikipedia http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Perugino,_apparizione_della_vergine_a_san_bernardo,_monaco.jpg

The Godparents III
Portrait of Alessandro Gondi as a child (1569) by Anguissola Sofonisba. Courtesy of Fondazione Federico Zeri, University of Bologna, entry #36011, container #0371.
http://fe.fondazionezeri.unibo.it/catalogo/scheda.jsp?id=35847&apply=true&titolo=Anguissola+Sofonisba%0a%09%09%09%0a%09%09+++++%2c+Ritratto+di+Alessandro+Gondi&tipo_scheda=OA&decorator=layout_S2

The Neri Godparents II
Opening lines of Piero della Stufa’s MS. translating Luca della Robbia from Latin to Italian. Courtesy of Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania, Ms. Codex 461 http://hdl.library.upenn.edu/1017/d/medren/2486632

The Neri Godparents
Guido Reni (1575–1642), St Joseph with the Infant Jesus (c. 1635), at the Hermitage, in St. Petersburg. Oil on canvas. Courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saint_Joseph_with_the_Infant_Jesus_by_Guido_Reni,_c_1635.jpg

Pebbles from Pavia
William Pars (1742‑1782) “A Bridge on the River Ticino, near Polleggio” c.1770. Graphite and watercolour on paper Image courtesy  of the Tate Museum, London.  http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pars-a-bridge-on-the-river-ticino-near-polleggio-t08276

Tinsel Glass    
From Denis Diderot's Encyclopedia, machinery to hammer brass into thin sheets. Volume 23, fig 13, plate 4. http://artflx.uchicago.edu/images/encyclopedie/V23/plate_23_13_4.jpeg

Scraping the Barrel
4th century BCE philosopher Diogenes, “Alexander and Diogenes” 1792
painting by Gaetano Gandolfi (1792). Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gaetano_Gandolfi_-_Alexander_and_Diogenes.jpg

April 2015
Washing Molten Glass
Washing, sorting and carrying cullet, from Denis Diderot 1772. Recueil des planches sur les sciences, les arts libéraux, et les arts mechaniques : avec leur explication, v. 10, plate 16. Paris : Briasson, 1772. Image courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass, featured (fig.3) in “Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Women Working with Glass,” http://www.cmog.org/article/breaking-glass-ceiling-women-working-glass

Eyes of a Lynx
The seal of the Academia dei Lincei. Courtesy of Accademia dei Lincei, Palazzo Corsini - Via della Lungara, 10, Rome. http://www.lincei.it/

Archiater
Ceiling panel of entrance vestibule, 27 Borgo Pinti, Florence. Neri family coat of arms. Photo by Paul Engle, 2011.

Salamander Reprise
Michael Maier, Atalanta fugiens, hoc est, Emblemata Nova de Secretis Naturae Chymica... (Oppenheim: Johann Theodori de Bry, 1617), emblem 29.

Cross Pollination
The art of stonework, from MS Ferguson 67, f. 7r, (1598-1600)
Antonio Neri. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Glass or Rock?
Rock crystal ewer, Egypt(1000-1050), V&A Museum, #7904-1862, Photo via Wikimedia Commons  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rock_crystal_ewer.jpg

Zaffer
Window at Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres, located 80 km (50 mi) southwest of Paris, (constructed between 1194 and 1250). Photo by “Vassil”, image courtesy of Wikimedia commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vitrail_Chartres_Notre-Dame_210209_1.jpg

Primordial Matter
Mining practices, from Georgius Agricola (Georg Bauer), De Re Metallica 1556, Image courtesy of University of Arizona Mineral Museum. http://www.uamineralmuseum.org/exhibits/demonmonier/rare-book-collection/  (1540 ed is here: http://books.google.com/books?id=PUo8AAAAcAAJ )

Borgo Pinti
Palazzo Marzichi Lenzi, Florence. Photo by “Sailko”, courtesy of Wikipedia: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Palazzo_Marzichi_lenzi_01.JPG

Waxing Moon Reprise
Allain Manesson Mallet "Description de L'Univers" (Frankfurt: 1719)
Illustration: "Der Mont. – Lune"

Sonnet to a Barber
Bust portrait of Luigi [Lodovico?] Domenechi facing right set within an elaborate cartouche Engraving. Italian, 'Medaglia del [Antonio Francesco]Doni' print made by: Enea Vico, 1550-1564.  Courtesy of  the British Museum, inventory #1867,1012.650. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details/collection_image_gallery.aspx?assetId=66638&objectId=1501580&partId=1

Don Antonio de’ Medici
Frontispiece from Pierfilippo Covoni, Don Antonio de' Medici Al Casino Di San Marco, Firenze, 1892. Image from personal collection of Paul Engle. There is a public domain copy here: http://books.google.com/books?id=5-sVAAAAYAAJ

Carries the Palm
Assisi frescoes, entry into Jerusalem. Pietro Lorenzetti, 1320. Assisi, Lower Basilica, San Francesco, southern transept. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Assisi-frescoes-entry-into-jerusalem-pietro_lorenzetti.jpg

March 2015
Saint Justina of Padua with a palm frond, Bartolo Montagna 1490s, oil on wood. Courtesy of The Metropolital Museum of Art,  Accession Number: 14.40.606. http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/437145

Copper Sulfate (vitriol of copper), courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Copper_sulfate.jpg Photo by: ‘Stephanb’ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Stephanb

Isaac Hollandus
Illustration from: Isaac J. Hollandus, Chymische Schriften, Vienna 1773. Earlier 1666 ed is here (p. 13) http://books.google.com/books?id=XFw6AAAAcAAJ

Aventurine
Classe VI, n. 3458. / Figure 5: Small amphora in aventurine glass with handles in “rigadin” decorated with colorless “morise”, Murano, Salviati doc.http://www.cairn.info/revue-archeosciences-2013-1-page-135.htm
(e verre aventurine (« avventurina ») : son histoire, les recettes, les analyses, sa fabrication, by Moretti, Gratuze, Hreglich.

Chalcedony Glass Reprise
Ribbed vessel, chalcedony glass, seventeenth century, 20 cm.
Collection of the  Museo del Monastero di Santa Giulia, Brescia
Courtesy of Fondazione Marilena Ferrari. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-1479.html

Mother Dianora
Agnolo di Cosimo 'Bronzino,' "Portrait of Florentine Noblewoman" circa. 1540 Florence, (thought to be a cousin of Eleanor Toledo) Courtesy of  the San Diego Museum of Art. http://www.sdmart.org/

Cristallo
Dragon-stem goblet, Venice, Italy, (or in the Venetian style), 17th cent.
Courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass (# 51.3.118) http://www.cmog.org/artwork/dragon-stem-goblet

Dyed In the Grain
Dyeing wool cloth, from "Des Proprietez des Choses", Bartholomaeus Anglicus, 1482. British Library Royal MS 15.E.iii, folio 269 Image via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dyeing_British_Library_Royal_MS_15.E.iii,_f._269_1482.jpg

Sara Vincx
Detail from: Roses and an iris in a glass vase, crabs and prawns on a pewter platter, a Facon-de-Venise wineglass, a stoneware ewer, a bunch of grapes. By Alexander Adriaenssen b. 1587, Antwerp, d. 1661, Antwerp.

Reticello
Reticello by Aaron Tate http://www.aarontate.com/ , Photo (c) by David Lindes courtesy of David Lindes. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lindes/78440530/.

Borosilicate glass pendant flameworked in the style of reticello, by Adam Reetz 2015, photo courtesy of the artist. http://ink361.com/app/users/ig-658429654/photos

Borgo Pinto (part 2)
Palazzi Ximenes panciatichi da sangallo, courtyard. Photo by “Sailko”, courtesy of Wikipedia: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Palazzo_ximenes_panciatichi_da_sangallo,_cortile_01.JPG


Borgo Pinti
Palazzo Marzichi Lenzi, Florence. Photo by “Sailko”, courtesy of Wikipedia: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Palazzo_Marzichi_lenzi_01.JPG

Filigrana
Mezza Filigrana footed vase, circa 1950s, by Dino Martens (1894-1970) for Aureliano Toso. http://www.artnet.com/artists/dino-martens/past-auction-results

Flameworked filigrana style miniature vessels by Emilio Santini, Photo courtesy of the artist.

Women in Early Modern Science
Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 25r, 35r, 37r.

Antonio Neri's Birthday
Neri Medallion, Specola, Florence (manipulated to remove parallax distortion, and correct color) Original courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Specola,_medaglione_di_antonio_neri.JPG

February 2015
Alberico Barbini
A section from a larger view of Venice with the island of Murano in the distance, circa 1600 attributed to Danckerts in the style of the famous woodcut print by Jacopo de’ Barbari circa 1500. http://drawingdetail.tumblr.com/post/21644545773/a-section-from-a-larger-view-of-venice-with-the

Gold Rubino Redux
A gold florin.(1347) Photo courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fiorino_1347.jpg

Cranberry glass or Gold Ruby from the treasury chamber of the Wittelsbacher located in the Munich Residenz. 2010, Wikimedia foundation.(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Goldrubinglas_Schatzkammer_M%C3%BCnchen.jpg)

Incalmo
Tapio Wirkkala for Venini: Incalmo Bolle,  http://designgush.com/2011/03/30/tapio-wirkkala-for-venini-incalmo-bolle-copy/

Murano. 'A canne di filigrana ed incalmo' plate, 16th century. D. 28.3 cm. Clear glass, fused clear glass rods, opaque white threads and spirals. http://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/30038985_a-canne-di-filigrana-ed-incalmo-plate-16th-century

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/08.138.2 From www.metmuseum.org - March 12, 2013 1:35 PM Abbasid period (750–1258), 9t–10th century Iraq or Syria. Glass, greenish yellow, blown in two parts, impressed with tongs

The Duke's Oil
Trajan's Column, Rome, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1758), Hind 51iii(of vii). Etching and engraving, Plate 31 from the Vedute di Roma (Views of Rome). Courtesy of R. E Lewis and Daughter http://www.relewis.com/piranesi-trajans-column.html

Saint Philip Neri
Saint Philip Neri, attr. unknown, prob. after Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (Il Guernico), 1565 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Guercino_San_Filippo_Neri._San_Marino.JPG)Courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FNeri.gif

Turning Iron into Copper
The recovery of copper from vitriolated waters,

from De Re Metallica, 1556, by Agricola (Georg Bauer). Courtesy of BioMineWiki: http://wiki.biomine.skelleftea.se/wiki/index.php/BioMineWiki:About File:  http://wiki.biomine.skelleftea.se/wiki/index.php/Image:Agricola.jpg

Caterina Sforza
Caterina Sforza, by Lorenzo di Credi (c.1463-1509)
Now in the Museum of Forlì (Pinacoteca Civica di Forlì, Italy)
Photo courtesy of: http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/monalisa/genealogy/073.htm
Via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Caterina_Sforza.jpg

Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (1498) Courtesy of Uffizi Gallery, Florence, via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Botticelli-primavera.jpg (detail - rightmost of the three graces)

Botanical Gardens
Rudolf II as "Vertumnus" by the Milanese painter Giuseppe Arcimboldo. (c. 1590), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arcimboldovertemnus.jpeg

The Glass Furnace
From "De re metallica", Agricola (Georg Bauer) 1556.
Georg Agricola, Zwölf Bücher vom Berg- und Hüttenwesen, übers. v. Carl Schiffner, Berlin 1928, S. 502 ff. Scanned by Bibliothek für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte / Köln, http://www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/ courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agricola-3.png

Like Snow from Heaven
28th December 2005 in Florence (Photo by Marco De La Pierre), Image © Florencephotos.com [info@florencephotos.com] [http://www.florencephotos.com] Firenze, Italy 1999-2010.

January 2015
Mirror, Mirror On the Wall
Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait (1434), National Gallery, London, courtesy of Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Van_Eyck_-_Arnolfini_Portrait.jpg
Detail of same.

The Desert Knows Me Well
Drummond, Alexander (1754), Travels through different cities of Germany, Italy, Greece, and several parts of Asia, as far as the banks of the Euphrates (London: Printed by W. Strahan for the author, 1754) OCLC 1319396, http://openlibrary.org/books/OL6953903M/Travels_through_different_cities_of_Germany_Italy_Greece_and_several_parts_of_Asia_as_far_as_the_ban Artist unknown, Image courtesy of Wikimedia: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1754_Aleppo_Drummond.png

Scientific Glassware Reprise
Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Conciatore Excerpt
Conspicilla (Spectacles)—detail, Jan van der Straet (Giovanni Stradano), Florence, c.1591. Engr. Jan Collaert (II), Pub., Philips Galle.

Conciatore the Book
Photo of Conciatore, The Life and Times of 17th Century Glassmaker Antonio Neri. Photo courtesy of Lori Engle.

The Kabbalah
Kabbalistic Sephiroth Tree, from Portae Lucis, Paulus Ricius (Trans. of “Shaare ora” by Joseph Gikatilla) Augsburg, 1516.

Michel Montaigne
Portrait of Michel Montaigne Anonymous (17th century), based on Kerkado (ca. 1580) http://www.qotd.org/quotes/Montaigne

Torricelli and Glass
Evangelista Torricelli by Lorenzo Lippi (circa 1647, Galleria Silvano Lodi & Due), courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Evangelista_Torricelli_by_Lorenzo_Lippi_(circa_1647,_Galleria_Silvano_Lodi_%26_Due).jpg

Enamels Reprise
Enameled Pendant, Pope Gregory IX, attr. Italian, mid 17th  c.
Mid Seventeenth century double sided enameled pendant. On one side with the image of Pope Gregory IX on the other side St Ambrosius. Probably Italian ca 1650. via https://www.pinterest.com/pin/75716837458523173/

Le Fritte
Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert eds., L'Encyclopédie, Vol. 10 (1772), “Wood Glass Making,” Raking Out Baked Frit (Verrerie – Verrerie en bois ou petite verrerie à pivette) fig. 15.

Anatomy of a Misconception
Thomas Hobbes portrait, by  John Michael Wright, 17th cent.  Courtesy of National Portrait Gallery: NPG 225, via Wikimedia commons  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hobbes_(portrait).jpg

The “French Disease” Reprise
Venus and Mercury with Cupid, Nicolas Chaperon (1612-1655). Courtesy of Musée du Louvre. Via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nicolas_Chaperon_-_V%C3%A9nus,_Mercure_et_l'Amour.jpg

Containing Hooke's Tears
From Micrographia, by Robert Hooke, 1664. Detail of illustration between pages 10, 11.
http://archive.org/stream/mobot31753000817897#page/32/mode/2up