Picture Credits 2020

October 2020
Supplemental illustration (1 Oct 2020): The library of the University of Leiden (1610), where Christoph Plantin worked from 1583 to 1585. Picture courtesy of Frédéric Barbier http://histoire-du-livre.blogspot.com/2012_04_01_archive.html (28 Avril 2012). University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in ''Stedeboeck der Nederlanden'', Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649

September 2020
Neri the Scholar (30 Sep 2020):
Francesco Bartolozzi, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, fine XVIII sec.
http://babilonia61.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Francesco-Bartolozzi-Biblioteca-Medicea-Laurenziana-fine-XVIII-sec.--1024x619.jpg


Supplemental illustration (29 Sep 2020):
Dutch kitchen scene in Great Hall at Treasurer's House, York. By Beuckelaer, c.1530-73

An Alchemist's Kitchen (28 Sep 2020): Tesoro del Mondo, "Ars Preparatio Animalium" Antonio Neri 1598-1600, f. 10r (MS Ferguson 67).

Supplemental illustration: (24 Sep 2020): The alchemist facilitates the growth of the metallic seed towards its two fruits or perfections—silver and gold. Emblem twelve from Michael Maier's Symbola Aureae Mensae, Frankfurt, 1617. http://www.aaroncheak.com/on-hermeticism/

Alchemy of Plants (23 Sep. 2020):
Antonio Neri, "Arts Preparatio frugu vel Piantar." in Tesoro del Mondo, f. 9r.Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Veins of the Earth (21,22 Sep 2020): Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 5r, 6r.

Supplemental illustration (19 Sep 2020): Martin and Anibal, drawn by Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" courtesy of University of Glasgow Library.

Alchemical Glassware  (18  Sep  2020): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Women in Alchemy (16, 17  Sep  2020):
Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 25r, 35r, 37r.

Alchemist's Assistant (14 Sep 2020):
Spine of Agnolo della Casa, BNCF MS. Palatino 867 [756 - 21, 2.] Serie Targioni, II, v. 3. Courtesy of Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze.

Lakes of Flowers (11 Sep 2020):
The Miracle of the immobility of Santa Lucia, 1596/7, by Leandro Bassano (1557–1622).
S Giorgio Maggiore Venice, 1st Altar from the entrance left. Photo credit: Basilica S Giorgio Maggiore Edizione della Basilica 2000 P.26, courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bassano,Leandro_Martyr_S_Lucia.jpg

Supplemental illustration (10 Sep 2020):
Title page of first printed edition of the Zohar, main sourcebook of Kabbalah, from Mantua, Italy in 1558

The Kabbalah (9 Sep 2020):
Kabbalistic Sephiroth Tree, from Portae Lucis, Paulus Ricius (Trans. of “Shaare ora” by Joseph Gikatilla) Augsburg, 1516.

Supplemental illustration (8 Sep 2020):  (See: I. Lazar (2005) 'An Oil Lamp depicting a Roman Glass Furnace - a new find from Slovenia' in Instrumentum 22, Dec. 2005. The lamp itself is in the Pokrajinski Muzej Ptuj, Slovenia.) http://www.theglassmakers.co.uk/archiveromanglassmakers/furnace1.htm

Early Modern Glass Furnace (7 Sep 2020):  From "De re metallica", Agricola (Georg Bauer) 1556. Georg Agricola, Zwölf Bücher vom Berg- und Hüttenwesen, übers. v. Carl Schiffner, Berlin 1928, S. 502 ff. Scanned by Bibliothek für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte / Köln, http://www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/ courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agricola-3.png

Supplemental Twitter illustration (5 Sep 2020): An excerpt of a 1814 poem "Glass" by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft 

An 1814 Glass Poem (4 Sep 2020): Portrait of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, frontispiece from Notes on the Iroquois: Or, Contributions to American History, Antiquities, and General Ethnology, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. (Albany: E. H. Pease & Company, 1847), p. ii.

Supplemental illustration (3 Sep 2020): Glass bagpipe of Glenfiddich Piping Trophy, courtesy rebecca Lomnicky http://www.rebeccalomnicky.com/Photos7.htm

Smuggling Glass Blowers (2 Sep 2020):
Berkshire Glass Works cane from 1878. These were novelty items made by glass workers in off hours.  It’s filled with the pure quartzite sand they were so proud of. It was 99.98% pure, the purest in the world. – Charles Flint http://www.peachridgeglass.com/2012/06/glass-cane-whimsies/

Supplemental illustration (1 Sep 2020): The American revolutionary Benjamin Franklin visits a salon in 1780s Paris. Benjamin Franklin at the court of France, 1778, engraving after a painting by Hobens.
National Archives, Washington, D.C.

August 2020
Franklin and Glass (31 Aug 2020)):  Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) , North American printer, publisher, writer, scientist, inventor and statesman 79 years old. Courtesy Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin#/media/File:BenFranklinDuplessis.jpg


Supplemental illustration (29 Aug 2020): Female fancy glass blower at the oil lamp (Attribution Unknown, late 19th cent.) Courtesy http://www.untamedrose.com/content/about-art

Mrs. Johnston, 18th Century Fancy Glassblower (28 Aug 2020): Victorian lamp-worked glass ship and lighthouse (frigger) standing 48cm tall belonging to DMBC Museum Service. Courtesy of Kate Round.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (27 Aug 2020):Piazza Santa Trìnita, Florence, the column of justice,  a massive granite column from the east section of the Baths of Caracalla in Rome. It was the gift of Pope Pius IV in 1560 for Cosimo I, the first Grand Duke of Florence. In 1581 the Justice statue by Tadda was added to the top of the column http://www.florence-on-line.com/piazzas/piazza-santa-trinita.html

Weights and Measures (26 Aug 2020):
"The Proclamation regarding Weights and Measures A.D. 1556" by Ford Madox Brown, a mural at Manchester Town Hall. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BrownManchesterMuralProclamation.jpg

Supplemental illustration (25 Aug 2020): Turquoise glass goblet, Venetian, c1490, 19cm tall. British Museum collection. http://britishmuseum.tumblr.com/post/121113973422/turquoise-glass-goblet

Turquoise Glass (24 Aug 2020):
Turquoise glass stamp of calif Mustadi 1170-1180. Photo by PHGCOM, 2009, at British Museum. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Turquoise_glass_stamp_of_calif_Mustadi_1170_1180.jpg

A Philosophical Explosion  (21-22 Aug 2020): courtesy of the American Ceramics Society http://ceramics.org/ceramic-tech-today/video-glass-science-of-prince-ruperts-drop-captured-with-high-speed-cameras

Thomas Hobbes portrait, by  John Michael Wright, 17th cent.  Courtesy of National Portrait Gallery: NPG 225, via Wikimedia commons  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hobbes_(portrait).jpg

From ‘Account of the Glass Drops’ by Robert Moray, 17 August 1661. Royal Society Classified Papers Cl.P/3i/57  Courtesy of http://blogs.royalsociety.org/history-of-science/2014/02/24/prince-ruperts-drops/

Supplemental illustration (20 Aug 2020): Image from ‘Account of the Glass Drops’ by Robert Moray, 17 August 1661. Royal Society Classified Papers Cl.P/3i/57  Courtesy of http://blogs.royalsociety.org/history-of-science/2014/02/24/prince-ruperts-drops/

Hooke's Tears (19 Aug 2020):
From Micrographia, by Robert Hooke, 1664. Detail of illustration between pages 10, 11.
http://archive.org/stream/mobot31753000817897#page/32/mode/2up

Supplemental illustration (18 Aug 2020): Two alchemists seeming to produce gold from a furnace; the accompanying text satirises those who pursue alchemy for gold alone. Engraving by C. Weigel, 1698. Courtesy Wellcome Library collection http://catalogue.wellcomelibrary.org/record=b1195049

Sal Ammoniac (17 Aug 2020):
Ammoniac (skeletal crystals to 10 sm). Uroch. Kukhi-Malik, Fan-yagnobskoe coal mine, near Ravat, Tadjikistan, Middle Asia, CIS, Yagnob. (c) A. A. Evseev, photo courtesy of http://www.jewellery.org.ua/stones-katalog-engl/mineral-nashatir.htm

Supplemental illustration (16 Aug 2020) : Mater Dolorosa, Titian, 1554  Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. (The Virgin Mary in a robe painted with precious ultramarine pigment)  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mater_Dolorosa_by_Titian.jpg

Ultramarine Blue(15 Aug 2020) :
Photo: Krén, Emil and Daniel Marx, Web Gallery of Art. Frescoes in the Cappella Scrovegni , Padua by Giotto, 1306, via http://drawingatduke.blogspot.com/2012/10/giotto-di-bondone.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration (13Aug 2020): View of Castel Dell'Oro Naples, "Tavola Strozzi" (1472), attributed toFrancesco Rosselli - San Martino Museum in Naples https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tavola_Strozzi. Detail Photo courtesy of Carl,  https://www.flickr.com/photos/70125105@N06/10506919956

Friar Mauritio (12Aug 2020):Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, "Brother Mauritio" detail from, f. 19r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental Twitter illustration (11Aug 2020): Glass ,Venetian Murano ewer, aventurine glass, Salviati 1880's https://www.pinterest.com/laurapadoan1/salviati/

Aventurine (10 Aug 2020):
Classe VI, n. 3458. / Figure 5: Small amphora in aventurine glass with handles in “rigadin” decorated with colorless “morise”, Murano, Salviati doc.http://www.cairn.info/revue-archeosciences-2013-1-page-135.htm (e verre aventurine (« avventurina ») : son histoire, les recettes, les analyses, sa fabrication, by Moretti, Gratuze, Hreglich.

Supplemental illustration (8 Aug 2020): Photo of Sir Thomas Phillips, ca. 1860. from frontispiece of "Bibliotheca Phillippica: manuscripts on vellum and paper from the 9th to the 18th centuries from the celebrated collection formed by Sir Thomas Phillipps : the final selection." , New York : H.P. Kraus, c1979.  http://www.themorgan.org/collection/crusader-bible/provenance

Bibliomaniac (7 Aug 2020):
Broadway Tower, Worcestershire. The home of Phillipps' Middle Hill Press. Photo W. Lloyd MacKenzie, via Flickr @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/saffron_blaze/ via http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Broadway_Tower_2012.jpg

Gold Ruby Glass (5,6 Aug 2020):
A gold florin.(1347) Photo courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fiorino_1347.jpg

Gold Ruby from the treasury chamber of the Wittelsbacher located in the Munich Residenz. 2010, Wikimedia foundation.(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Goldrubinglas_Schatzkammer_M%C3%BCnchen.jpg)

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (4 Aug 2020): Ottavio Leoni Portrait of Francesco Maria del Monte (1578–1630). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottavio_Leoni

The Duke's Oil (3 Aug 2020):
Trajan's Column, Rome, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1758), Hind 51iii(of vii). Etching and engraving, Plate 31 from the Vedute di Roma (Views of Rome). Courtesy of R. E Lewis and Daughter http://www.relewis.com/piranesi-trajans-column.html

Supplemental illustration: (1 Aug 2020): - One of the isolation cells in the Bargello Prison (Florence, Gabinetto Fotografico) Courtesy of http://www.edwardgoldberg.net/p/story-begins.html

June 2020
The Duke's Mouthwash (31 Jul 2020):
Ferdinando de’ Medici (1549-1609), Scipione Pulzone (1544 - 1598), Private collection. http://www.artfact.com/auction-lot/scipione-pulzone,-portrait-of-ferdinando-de-medi-1116-c-d137af3e89

Rosichiero Glass (29, 30 Jul 2020):
Venice Sunset, Artist unknown, courtesy of "free wallpaper" at http://www.artworkslimitededitions.co.uk/desktopwallpaper.php - Please contact me if you know the artist.

Supplemental illustration (28 Jul 2020): Nef, or navicella. First half of 16th century, possibly by Arminia Vivarini.  Museo del Vetro, Murano, Venice Italy.  http://museovetro.visitmuve.it/it/il-museo/percorsi-e-collezioni/vetro-xv-xvi-xvii-secolo/

Arminia Vivarini (27 Jul 2020
): Nef Ewer, Late 16th century, Murano Italy. Image courtesy of the Milwaukee Art Museum.

Supplemental illustration (25 Jul 2020): Covered goblet decorated with the reticello technique. Probably Venice, late 17th–early 18th century. H. 27.7 cm, D. (cover) 9.5 cm. The Corning Museum of Glass (79.3.174, gift of The Ruth Bryan Strauss Memorial Foundation).  http://renvenetian.cmog.org/chapter/18th-century-decline

Reticello (24 Jul 2020):
Reticello by Aaron Tate http://www.aarontate.com/ , Photo (c) by David Lindes courtesy of David Lindes. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lindes/78440530/.

Filigrana (22 Jul 2020): Mezza Filigrana footed vase, circa 1950s, by Dino Martens (1894-1970) for Aureliano Toso. http://www.artnet.com/artists/dino-martens/past-auction-results

Flameworked filigrana style miniature vessels by Emilio Santini, Photo courtesy of the artist.
Incalmo 

Incalmo (20-21 Jul 2020): Tapio Wirkkala for Venini: Incalmo Bolle,  http://designgush.com/2011/03/30/tapio-wirkkala-for-venini-incalmo-bolle-copy/

Murano. 'A canne di filigrana ed incalmo' plate, 16th century. D. 28.3 cm. Clear glass, fused clear glass rods, opaque white threads and spirals. http://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/30038985_a-canne-di-filigrana-ed-incalmo-plate-16th-century

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/08.138.2 From www.metmuseum.org -  Abbasid period (750–1258), 9t–10th century Iraq or Syria. Glass, greenish yellow, blown in two parts, impressed with tongs

Supplemental Twitter illustration (18 Jul 2020): 
The four elements in alchemy are portrayed in Johann Daniel Mylius’ Philosophia reformata (1622) as representing the four stages of the alchemical opus. From left to right are earth, water, air and fire.

Primordial Matter (17 Jul 2020):
Mining practices, from Georgius Agricola (Georg Bauer), De Re Metallica 1556, Image courtesy of University of Arizona Mineral Museum. http://www.uamineralmuseum.org/exhibits/demonmonier/rare-book-collection/  (1540 ed is here: http://books.google.com/books?id=PUo8AAAAcAAJ )

Washing Molten Glass (15, 16 Jul 2020):
Washing, sorting and carrying cullet, from Denis Diderot 1772. Recueil des planches sur les sciences, les arts libéraux, et les arts mechaniques : avec leur explication, v. 10, plate 16. Paris : Briasson, 1772. Image courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass, featured (fig.3) in “Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Women Working with Glass,” http://www.cmog.org/article/breaking-glass-ceiling-women-working-glass

Supplemental illustration: (14 Jul 2020): Ticino paver stones in Pavia, Italy Photo courtesy of Kaanz photography,  www.facebook.com/kaanzphotography

Pebbles from Pavia (13 Jul 2020)):
William Pars (1742‑1782) “A Bridge on the River Ticino, near Polleggio” c.1770. Graphite and watercolor on paper Image courtesy  of the Tate Museum, London.  http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pars-a-bridge-on-the-river-ticino-near-polleggio-t08276

Supplemental illustration: (11 Jul 2020): Potassium bitartrate crystals -commonly known as wine diamonds.  Courtesy of the Austrian Centre for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis F E L M I - Z F E: Greetings from kitchen. July 29, 2015 · https://www.facebook.com/1607499066168368/photos/a.1613920892192852.1073741831.1607499066168368/1629293257322282/?type=3&theater

Scraping the Barrel (10 Jul 2020):
4th century BCE philosopher Diogenes, “Alexander and Diogenes” 1792 painting by Gaetano Gandolfi (1792). Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gaetano_Gandolfi_-_Alexander_and_Diogenes.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (9 Jul 2020): Stained glass window of Marc Chagall's work at the U.N. Image courtesy of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:UN_Glass.jpg

Zaffer: (8 Jul 2020) Antique Apothecary Pharmacy Bottles Cobalt Blue https://www.pinterest.com/pin/258605203572745183/

Supplemental illustration: (7 Jul 2020): Cardinal de Richelieu, Philippe de Champaigne 1641. courtesy of wikimedia  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardinal_Richelieu#/media/File:Cardinal_de_Richelieu_mg_0053.jpg

Vitrum Flexile (6 Jul 2020): Roman Emperor Tiberius - Glass paste cameo c 20ACE by "Herophilos, Son of Dioskurides. Courtesy https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276865127678/

Supplemental Twitter illustration (4 July 2020): Oculus above the portal of the White Penitents Chapel in Montpellier, France. Stained glass window featuring the Holy Spirit, as a dove, symbol of the Confraternity and motto: "Spiritus Sanctus ubi vult spirat". [The Holy Spirit blows where it wishes] 17th century. Photo courtesy Wikimedia. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sainte-Foy,_chapelle_des_P%C3%A9nitents_blancs_de_Montpellier._Oculus_du_Saint-Esprit_symbole_de_la_Confr%C3%A9rie.jpg

Montpellier (3 July 2020):
Engraved view of Montpellier, France, in the seventeenth century. German, 1660. Attribution unknown, http://www.museeprotestant.org/en/notice/the-last-religious-wars/

Supplemental illustration (2 July 2020): Paste gem and gold finger ring, 1600s, courtesy of The Museum of London, via https://www.pinterest.com/pin/76772368617930715/

Artificial Gems (1 July 2020):
Pendant, paste gems, Portugal ca. 1750. V&A acquisition nr.M.68-1962 http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O113043/pendant-unknown/

Supplemental illustration (30 June 2020): Detail of Dragon-Stem Goblet, Venice, Italy, 1630-1670. Courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass 51.3.118.

Sara Vincx (29 June 2020):
Detail from: Roses and an iris in a glass vase, crabs and prawns on a pewter platter, a Facon-de-Venise wineglass, a stoneware ewer, a bunch of grapes. By Alexander Adriaenssen b. 1587, Antwerp, d. 1661, Antwerp

Supplemental illustration (27 June  2020): The Beguines' hospital of Malines in Mechelen, Belgium in the 19th century. Source unknown.

The Béguines of Malines (26 June  2020):
A Béguine of Antwerp, from Pierre Hélyot, L'Histoire des ordres monastiques… 1719 (v.8) Courtesy of Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=9DQGAAAAQAAJ

Supplemental Twitter illustration (25 June  2020): Alchemical images from the Beinecke Library Johan Isaac Hollandus, 15th century Alchemical and Rosicrucian compendium, courtesy  rara1avis1.blogspot.com.

Isaac Hollandus (24 June  2020):
Illustration from: Isaac J. Hollandus, Chymische Schriften, Vienna 1773. Earlier 1666 ed is here (p. 13) http://books.google.com/books?id=XFw6AAAAcAAJ

Neri in Antwerp (22 23 June  2020):
Fig 1:De Blauwe Toren 1865, Jozef Linnig, Museum Plantin-Moretus / Prentenkabinet,  nr. 3359/18 28/66
(photo by Bart Huysmans) http://www.collectieantwerpen.be/component/option,com_memorix/task,result/searchplugin,categorie/Itemid,2/Categorie,tekening/cp,41/lang,fr/pp,40/mrxpopup,1/CollectionID,1/PhotoID,FAM001005136/RecordID,974067/ResultRecord,405/resultplugin,detail/do,5/

Fig 2: Antwerpen, het Arsenaal, 1601-1653
Circle of Jan Wildens, Pen and brown ink, brown wash on paper. RKD Netherlands Institute for Art History
Illustration number 0000053843. https://rkd.nl/explore/images/27381

Fig 3: Blauwe Toren, Edmond Fierlants
Antwerpen, Belgium, 1860 Photograph, Courtesy of Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience
http://www.sepiatown.com/812664/Blauwe-Toren-by-Fierlants-Antwerpen-Belgium


Supplemental Twitter illustration: (20 June 2020): Philip William, Prince of Orange, Emanuel van Meteren (1535-1612), Simeon Ruytinck (-1621). Engraver: H. Jacopsen. Photography: D-vorm, Bert en Lilian Mellink. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emanuel_van_Meteren_Historie_ppn_051504510_MG_8780_philips_guillaume.tif

Dear Friends (19 June 2020):
The library of the University of Leiden (1610), where Christoph Plantin worked from 1583 to 1585. Picture courtesy of Frédéric Barbier http://histoire-du-livre.blogspot.com/2012_04_01_archive.html (28 Avril 2012). University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in ''Stedeboeck der Nederlanden'', Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649.

Supplemental illustration  (18 June 2020): A section from a larger view of Venice with the island of Murano in the distance, circa 1600 attributed to Danckerts in the style of the famous woodcut print by Jacopo de’ Barbari circa 1500. http://drawingdetail.tumblr.com/post/21644545773/a-section-from-a-larger-view-of-venice-with-the

Neri's Travels (17 June 2020):
“Roma,” Antonio Neri, from Tesoro del Mondo (Neri 1598–1600), Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections.

Supplemental illustration (16 June 2020): Ruins of the paper mill at Pescia, Italy © All Rights Reserved by brezza, 2004.

Sonnet for a Barber (15 June 2020):
Bust portrait of Luigi [Lodovico?] Domenechi facing right set within an elaborate cartouche Engraving. Italian, 'Medaglia del [Antonio Francesco]Doni' print made by: Enea Vico, 1550-1564.  Courtesy of  the British Museum, inventory #1867,1012.650. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details/collection_image_gallery.aspx?assetId=66638&objectId=1501580&partId=1

A Band of Alchemists: (12, 13 June 2020):
The Alchemist 1558, Pieter Brugle the Elder. British Museum, London, http://www.wikiart.org/en/pieter-bruegel-the-elder/the-alchemist

What Goes Around Comes Around (10, 11 June 2020)Map of Ulm, Germany, Ulm - "Ulma Imperialis in Sueuia urbs, fortissimo aquae et muror ambitu, magnifico templo, et Danubij propiquitate illustris."  Georg Braun & Franz Hogenberg 1570-78. Copper engraving, original color in outline and wash. 107 by 470mm (4¼ by 18½ inches). B&H Vol. I. #31  https://www.bergbook.com/images/21441-01.jpg

Supplemental illustration (

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (
Main entrance (detail) of Casino di San Marco, Florence, Italy. Macaque monkey over entrance embodies the playful spirit of discovery practiced inside. Photo by  "Sailko" 2007, via Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Casino_di_san_marco,_scimmietta.JPG

Casino di San Marco (
Courtesy of ARCHIDIS - Fondo disegni tecnici del Comune di Firenze. Direction de Toscana place de Florence. Coupe du casin de S. Marc, prise sur la ligne. Cart. 5 tavola 1. sul retro: classe 1° Casino di S. Marco. n. 3 piante del casino della Livia - cav. Mazzei. Amfce 0533 (cass. 16 ins. A2). (http://opac.comune.firenze.it/).

Supplemental illustration (4 June 2020): Domenico Ghirlandaio, tempera on wood 1483. Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints, from San Giusto Alle Mura, Florence. Now Galleria degli Uffizi, courtesy Wikimedia commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Domenico_Ghirlandaio_Madonna_and_Child_enthroned_with_Saint_c_1483.jpg

San Giusto Alle Mura (3 June 2020):
Window of  Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral, Florence, Italy. Window detail of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence. Photo by Georges Jansoone, courtesy  of Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Stained_glass_windows_in_Santa_Maria_del_Fiore_(Florence)#mediaviewer/File:Santa_Maria_del_Fiore_colour_glass_(1623723568).jpg

Supplemental illustration (2 June 2020): Woodwork-Furniture: Galleria dei Lavori, Florence, ca. 1606–23, Italian, Florence. Oak with various exotic hardwoods, marble, slate (paragon); pietre dure work consisting of colored marbles, rock crystal, and various hardstones. Metropolitam Museum of Art, NY  Acc.# 1988.19

Cross Pollination (1 June 2020):
The art of stonework, from MS Ferguson 67, f. 7r, (1598-1600)
Antonio Neri. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

May 2020
Supplemental illustration (30 May 2020):  Paracelsus, 1935. Franz Görtitz, Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu, Romania. The painting shows the famous alchemist and physician Paracelsus holding a retort in his hands and standing in front of a furnace on which is placed a glass balloon  http://hekint.org/paracelsus-physician-and-alchemist-2/

The Paracelsans (29 May 2020):
Aureolus Philipp Theophra Paracels, courtesy of ‘Images from the History of Medicine’, U.S. National Library of Medicine (NML). Portrait no. 5197.15, Record UI: 101433870, Image ID:186083
http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/luna/servlet/detail/NLMNLM~1~1~101433870~186083:Aureolus-Philipp-Theophra-Paracels?sort=Title%2CSubject_MeSH_Term%2CCreator_Person%2CCreator_Organization&qvq=w4s:/what/Paracelsus,%201493-1541;sort:Title%2CSubject_MeSH_Term%2CCreator_Person%2CCreator_Organization;lc:NLMNLM~1~1&mi=0&trs=25

A Matter of Plagiarism (27, 28 May 2020):
Francesco Lana Terzi (1631-1687), Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons (Italy). http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lanadeterzi.jpg

Title page of Lana Terzi's Prodromo, Courtesy of Internet Archives. https://ia700808.us.archive.org/zipview.php?zip=/4/items/olcovers598/olcovers598-L.zip&file=5980348-L.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (26 May 2020): The Medici Glass Workshop (detail) in the Galleria dei Lavori of the Uffizi. Giovanni Maria Butteri (Italian, 1540–about 1606), 1570. Palazzo Vecchio, Studiolo of Francesco I.

Galleria Lavori (25 May 2020): Giovanni Stradano, alias Jan van der Straet (1523-1605), "Alchemy Studio" (1570). Palazzo Vecchio (Studiolo), Florence. Courtesy of Uffizi/Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.

Suplemental illustration  (23 May 2020): Galileo Galilei, objective lens, Padua, late 1609
Glass, 58 mm, Later mounted in a commemorative frame (1677) , Museo Galileo, Florence, inv.2429 http://www.astronomy2009.org/resources/multimedia/images/detail/galileo_03/

The Glassblower and the Astronomer (22 May 2020):
Justus Sustermans (1597-1681), portrait of Galileo Galilei, 1636 (detail). National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Justus_Sustermans_-_Portrait_of_Galileo_Galilei,_1636.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (21 May 2020): Orto Botanico (botanical gardens) at Pisa Attribution of image unknown,  courtesy of http://www.italianbotanicalheritage.com/it/scheda.php?struttura=752

Botanical Gardens (20 May 2020):
Rudolf II as "Vertumnus" by the Milanese painter Giuseppe Arcimboldo. (c. 1590), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arcimboldovertemnus.jpeg

Supplemental  illustration: (19 May 2020): http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Orto_botanico_di_Pisa_-_old_instiitute.JPG  Orto botanico di Pisa - old institute building. Pisa, Italy. Photo by "Daderot" 2006, GDFL.

Neri in Pisa (18 May 2020):
Grotesque style Euer by Niccolo Sisti, Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche in Faenza. Photo 2009, Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, the Wikimedia OTRS system, ticket #2009032510047417. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pisa_Nicol%C3%B2_Sisti_1590c_21511.JPG

True Colors (15, 16 May 2020):
The European Roller [Pica Marina] Photo: Mehmet Goren, Pica Marina. Courtesy of Mehmet Goren. http://www.trakus.org/kods_bird/uye/?fsx=2fsdl15@d&idx=4193#.Uij5udKsjTo

Pica marina, Ulisse Aldrovandi, "Le tavole acquerellate di Ulisse Aldrovandi Tavole vol. 002 Animali ..." Manoscritto, Parnassus Scientiarum, Catalogue of the Waller Collection of History of Science and Medicine, Edited by Marco Beretta and Andrea Scotti Interface editor Daniele Nuzzo, Courtesy  of the University of Bologna. http://www.filosofia.unibo.it/aldrovandi/pinakesweb/compdetail.asp?compid=3521

Thévenot In India 
Supplemental Twitter illustration: (12 May 2020): Supplemental Twitter illustration: Barque sailing ship, source and artist unknown. courtesty of  http://www.doversociety.org.uk/history-scrapbook/trades-occupations/sea-and-shipping

Thévenot Continues East (11 May 2020):Stained glass windows of the Nasir al-Mulk 'Pink Mosque', Shiraz, Iran. Photo by Domiri Mohammad Reza Ganji. http://iranbusinessportal.com/stunning-photos-by-an-iranian-physicis/

Supplemental illustration ( The Hedwig beaker at the British Museum, the style is thought to originate in Sicily  in the 10th to 12th century.  but the exact origin of the glasses is disputed, with Egypt, Iran and Syria all suggested as possible sources. https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=217275&partId=1

Travels To The East ( 
Jean de Thévenot, from "Relation d'un voyage fait au Levant" Frontispiece, Thévenot, Jean de. Relation d’un voyage fait au Levant. Paris: L. Billaine, 1665 Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_de_Th%C3%A9venot_(1664).jpg

Supplemental illustration (7 May 2020): 16th century miniature of Aleppo (Halep) , Syria, by Matrakçi Nasuh (cir.1480-1564). http://ankaraolgunlasma.meb.k12.tr/tema/icerikler/matrakci-nasuh_1564182.html

Neri's Aleppo Connection (6 May 2020):
1) Drummond, Alexander (1754), Travels through different cities of Germany, Italy, Greece, and several parts of Asia, as far as the banks of the Euphrates (London: Printed by W. Strahan for the author, 1754) OCLC 1319396, http://openlibrary.org/books/OL6953903M/Travels_through_different_cities_of_Germany_Italy_Greece_and_several_parts_of_Asia_as_far_as_the_ban Artist unknown, Image courtesy of Wikimedia: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1754_Aleppo_Drummond.png

Supplemental illustration: (5 May 2020): Ancient glass bottle Sidon, (c.150-300 CE) Louvre, Paris Musée du Louvre, Atlas database: entry 4565. Photo Marie-Lan Nguyen (2006), courtesy Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bottle_ivy_Louvre_MND505.jpg

The Discovery of Glass (4 May 2020): "The Discovery of Glass" Giovan Maria Butteri, from The Studiolo of Francesco de' Medici.c.1572  (no. 27 in below link). http://museicivicifiorentini.comune.fi.it/en/palazzovecchio/visitamuseo/studiolo_francesco_i.htm

Supplemental Twitter illustration (2 May 2020): Blätter des Manns Walfarn, by Alois Auer, Vienna: Imperial Printing Office, 1853. Courtesy of the Wikimedia foundation: Nature print, (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nature_print,_Alois_Auer_.jpg).

Laughing In the Fern (1 May 2020):
Alain Manesson Mallet  1719, "Der Mont. – Lune"

April 2020
Supplemental illustration: (30 April 2020):
Renaissance instruction in preparation of chemicals. From Annibal Barlet, Le Vray et methodique cours de Chymie (Paris, 1653) Image USNLM

Alchemy School (29 April 2020): Frontispiece woodcut from Zadith ben Hamuel De Chemia Senioris, 1566. See http://www.levity.com/alchemy/amclglr5.html

Supplemental illustration: (28 April 2020): The alchemist (Adriaen Van Ostade) http://www.salvatorefiorillo.it/dailylife.html

The Dregs (27 April 2020):
"The struggle of fixed and volatile" allegorical illustration from Splendor solis [detail] 1582. British Library, London, (Harley MS 3469). Courtesy of http://bordel.haghn.com/Art/Illustration/Splendor%20Solis/

Supplemental illustration: (25 April 2020): Sulfur crystal, from Agrigento, Sicily, Italy Photo by Eric Hunt 2006, courtesy of Wikimedia foundation https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Large_Sulfur_Crystal.jpg

Glass, Fire and Brimstone (24 April 2020):
Alchemical Symbol for Sulfur, created 2014 by Paul Engle in Photoshop. This image is in the public domain and may be used freely without attribution.

Supplemental illustration: (23 

Tartar Salt (22 April  2020): Potassium bitartrate crystals. Photo Courtesy of Vintner’s Cellar Waterloo http://www.vintnerscellarwaterloo.com/article/29/wine_diamonds_or_crystals_in_a_bottle.html


Supplemental illustration: (

Vitriol of Venus (

Supplemental illustration: (18 April  2020): Saturn, ruler of the signs of Aquarius and Capricorn, miniature attributed to Cristoforo de Predis (1440-before 1486) from the astrological book De Sphaera, lat manuscript 209, folio 5, verse, parchment, ca 1470. Detail. Italy, 15th century. http://symboldictionary.net/library/graphics/symbols/glossarysaturnus.jpg

17 April  2020
Sulfur of Saturn (

Supplemental illustration:  (16 April 2020):
From Medicinisch-Chymisch- und Alchemistisches Oraculum, Ulm, 1755. Courtesy of The Alchemy Website, http://www.levity.com/alchemy/alchemical_symbols06.html

Crocus Martis 

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (14 April 2020): Hall of Mirrors, The Golestan Palace, Tehran, Iran. Photo courtesy of http://historicaliran.blogspot.com/2011/03/golestan-palace.html

Olearius on Glass (13 April 2020)
Adam Olearius (1599-1671), 18th century engr, Attr. unknown, source: http://www.aschersleben-tourismus.de/cms/persoenlichkeiten/adam-olearius/  (Probably a copy of: 1669 oil on canvas portrait by Juriaen Ovens (1623-1678) ) see: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adam-Olearius.jpg .


Carries the Palm (10, 11 April 2020)
Assisi frescoes, entry into Jerusalem. Pietro Lorenzetti, 1320. Assisi, Lower Basilica, San Francesco, southern transept. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Assisi-frescoes-entry-into-jerusalem-pietro_lorenzetti.jpg

Saint Justina of Padua with a palm frond, Bartolo Montagna 1490s, oil on wood. Courtesy of The Metropolital Museum of Art,  Accession Number: 14.40.606. http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/437145

Copper Sulfate (vitriol of copper), courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Copper_sulfate.jpg Photo by: ‘Stephanb’ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Stephanb

Supplemental illustration (9 April 2020):  Bronze statue of an Owl by the Flemish artist Giambologna (1529-1608) - Florence:Bargello Museum (Italy) http://wiki.cultured.com/people/Giambologna/

The Neighbors (8April 2020):
"Portrait of Giamologna"by Hendrick Goltzius, Teylers Museum, courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Goltzius-Bologna.png

Early American Glass Blowers (6 April 2020):
Berkshire Glass Works cane from 1878 – Charles Flint collection. These were novelty items made by glassworkers after hours. (hollow, filled with the fine quality sand of the area)

Supplemental illustration (4April 2020): Title page from Antonio Neri's 1612 book L'Arte Vetraria [the art of glassmaking] http://www.cmog.org/library/larte-vetraria-distinta-libri-sette-del-rp-antonio-neri-fiorentino


Eyes of a Lynx (3 April 2020):
The seal of the Academia dei Lincei. Courtesy of Accademia dei Lincei, Palazzo Corsini - Via della Lungara, 10, Rome. https://catalogue.museogalileo.it/gallery/AccademiaLincei.html

Supplemental illustration (2 April 2020): Chalcedony cup, European, Corning Museum of Glass. gift of Ruth Bryan Strauss Memorial Foundation

Chalcedony Glass (1 April 2020):
Ribbed vessel, chalcedony glass, seventeenth century, 20 cm. Collection of the  Museo del Monastero di Santa Giulia, Brescia Courtesy of Fondazione Marilena Ferrari. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-1479.html


March 2020
Supplemental illustration (31 March 2020): 

Sisters of an Alchemist (30 March 2020)  medicine, pharmacy, pharmacy, apothecary and assistant cooking medicine, woodcut, from: Hieronymus Brunschwig (circa 1450 - circa 1512), "Kleinen Destillierbuchs", print: Johann Grüninger, Strasbourg, 1500

Dianora Parenti

Supplemental illustration (26 March 2020): 1580 Bianca Cappello, second Wife of Francesco I de' Medici by Alessandro Allori (Galleria degli Uffizi - Firenze, Toscna, Italy). spots throughout image removed with Photoshop


Francesco and Bianca (
"Antique print" Bianca Cappello and Grand Duke Francesco (with Don Antonio) -attriburtion unknown, 19th century. http://www.ebay.com/itm/Antica-Stampa-BIANCA-CAPPELLO-E-IL-GRANDUCA-FRANCESCO-DE-MEDICI-1870-Old-Print-/160798258706

Supplemental illustration (24 March 2020): A glass painting from Venice of 16th c. noblewoman, Bianca Cappello. Probably created around 1840 on Murano. https://www.rubylane.com/item/266027-1120/Venetian-Glass-Painting

Rise and Fall (23 March 2020):
“Merry Company,” 1623. Gerard van Honthorst (1590–1656),
Courtesy of Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss, Schleißheim, via Wikimedia commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Honthorst,_Gerard_van_-_Merry_Company_-_1623.jpg

Supplemental illustration (21 March 2020): Dutch kitchen scene in Great Hall at Treasurer's House, York. By Beuckelaer, c.1530-73

Alchemy in the Kitchen (20 March 2020): Antonio Neri, 1598-1600, Tesoro del Mondo, "Ars Preparatio Animalium”, MS Ferguson 67, f. 10r (detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Women in Alchemy ( 18-19 March 2020): Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 25r, 35r, 37r.

Caterina Sforza (16-17 March 2020): Portrait of Caterina Sforza, by Lorenzo di Credi (c.1463-1509)
Now in the Museum of Forlì (Pinacoteca Civica di Forlì, Italy)
Photo courtesy of: http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/monalisa/genealogy/073.htm
Via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Caterina_Sforza.jpg

Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (1498) Courtesy of Uffizi Gallery, Florence, via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Botticelli-primavera.jpg (detail - rightmost of the three graces)

Supplemental illustration (14 March 2020): The Beguines' hospital of Malines in Mechelen, Belgium in the 19th century. Source unknown.

The Béguines of Malines (13 March 2020):
A Béguine of Antwerp, from Pierre Hélyot, L'Histoire des ordres monastiques… 1719 (v.8) Courtesy of Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=9DQGAAAAQAAJ

Anna J Agnew (11, 12 March 2020)
1) Anna J. Agnew, Chicago Tribune, 9 March 1902, p. 43
2) H K Mulford advertising card showing vaccine was made in an adjacent facility to the glassworks.

Supplemental illustration (10 March 2020): Detail of Dragon-Stem Goblet, Venice, Italy, 1630-1670. Courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass 51.3.118.

Sara Vincx (9 March 2020):
Detail from: Roses and an iris in a glass vase, crabs and prawns on a pewter platter, a Facon-de-Venise wineglass, a stoneware ewer, a bunch of grapes. By Alexander Adriaenssen b. 1587, Antwerp, d. 1661, Antwerp

Supplemental illustration: (7 March 2020

Guest Post: Kate Round (6 1774 map by Robert Whitworth. courtesy of "Old Maps of Stourbridge" blog http://www.oldstourbridgemaps.kjdocs.co.uk/

Thomas Edison's Lady Glass Workers (4-5 March 2020):
Fig. 1: Sealing the Glass Socket and Carbon Filament into the Flask of an Incandescent Lamp. 1889, Scribner's Magazine v. 6
Fig. 2: Laboratory notebook entry signed solely by Mina Edison.
Fig. 3: Wanted ad for Edison’s Harrison Lampworks factory. The Boston Globe (Boston Massachusetts) 22 June 1894, Fri., p. 9.

Fig. 4: Finishing work on tungsten lamps, c.1927.

Supplemental illustration (

Arminia Vivarini (

February 2020
Supplemental Twitter illustration: (29 February 2020): American, circa 1909, A Tiffany Studios leaded glass and bronze lamp comprising a "salamander" design on a gilded bronze "bird skeleton" table base. Courtesy Lillian Nassau 

The Galssmaker's Salamander (28 February 2020):
Michael Maier, Atalanta fugiens, hoc est, Emblemata Nova de Secretis Naturae Chymica... (Oppenheim: Johann Theodori de Bry, 1617), emblem 29.

Supplemental illustration (27 February 2020):  (See: I. Lazar (2005) 'An Oil Lamp depicting a Roman Glass Furnace - a new find from Slovenia' in Instrumentum 22, Dec. 2005. The lamp itself is in the Pokrajinski Muzej Ptuj, Slovenia.) http://www.theglassmakers.co.uk/archiveromanglassmakers/furnace1.htm

Early Modern Glass Furnace (26 February 2020):  From "De re metallica", Agricola (Georg Bauer) 1556. Georg Agricola, Zwölf Bücher vom Berg- und Hüttenwesen, übers. v. Carl Schiffner, Berlin 1928, S. 502 ff. Scanned by Bibliothek für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte / Köln, http://www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/ courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agricola-3.png

Supplemental illustration (25 February 2020): North Italian apothecary's shop in a Hebrew manuscript of the Canon Medicinae of Avicenna, c. 1450-75. Bibliotheca Universitaria, Bologna, Italy, MS 2197, fol. 492. Courtesy of  http://www.alchemywebsite.com/Equipment_Pharmacies_manuscript.html

The Kabbalah (24 February):
Kabbalistic Sephiroth Tree, from Portae Lucis, Paulus Ricius (Trans. of “Shaare ora” by Joseph Gikatilla) Augsburg, 1516.

Supplemental illustration (22 February 2020) : Mater Dolorosa, Titian, 1554  Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. (The Virgin Mary in a robe painted with precious ultramarine pigment)  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mater_Dolorosa_by_Titian.jpg

Ultramarine Blue(21 February 2020) :
Photo: Krén, Emil and Daniel Marx, Web Gallery of Art. Frescoes in the Cappella Scrovegni , Padua by Giotto, 1306, via http://drawingatduke.blogspot.com/2012/10/giotto-di-bondone.html

Supplemental illustration (20 February 2020): Alchemical glassware,Andreas Libavius: Alchymia, 1606

Alchemical Glassware  (19 February 2020): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Supplemental illustration (18 February 2020): Carolyn Baum, Eternal Bloom, 2013. Flameworked soft glass, wire, fieldstone. H 12, W 12, D 10. https://glassquarterly.wordpress.com/2013/07/05/opening-true-to-life-glass-exhibition-inspired-by-blaschka-flowers-debuts-at-pittsburgh-glass-center/

Golden Yellow Glass (17 February 2020):
Created in 1995, by the studio of Dale Chihuly, this chandelier is made of 900 pieces of hand-blown glass. Weighing more than 1,000 pounds and measuring nine feet long and six feet wide, it contains 500 feet of yellow glass neon tubing. It is displayed at the Columbus, Indiana Visitors Center. Photo courtesy of the Center, http://www.kid-at-art.com/htdoc/cglass.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration (15 February 2020): Evangelista Torrecelli's experiments in Florence, by Gaspar Schott "Technica Curiosa" Wurzburg, 1664 -image from 1687 ed., p.205 here:  books.google.com/books?id=zkpAAAAAcAAJ

Torricelli and Glass  (14 February 2020):
Evangelista Torricelli by Lorenzo Lippi (circa 1647, Galleria Silvano Lodi & Due), courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Evangelista_Torricelli_by_Lorenzo_Lippi_(circa_1647,_Galleria_Silvano_Lodi_%26_Due).jpg

Benjamin Franklin and Glass (12 February 2020): Benjamin Franklin by Joseph Duplessis, 1778

Supplemental illustration(11 February 2020): Image from ‘Account of the Glass Drops’ by Robert Moray, 17 August 1661. Royal Society Classified Papers Cl.P/3i/57  courtesy of  The Royal Society http://blogs.royalsociety.org/history-of-science/2014/02/24/prince-ruperts-drops/

Hooke's Tears (10 February 2020):
From Micrographia, by Robert Hooke, 1664. Detail of illustration between pages 10, 11.
http://archive.org/stream/mobot31753000817897#page/32/mode/2up

Supplemental illustration (8 February 2020): Rummer with Raven's Head Seal, (detail) Savoy Glasshouse, George Ravenscroft, London 1676-1678 Corning Museum of Glass Acc.# 50.2.2  https://www.cmog.org/artwork/rummer-ravens-head-seal

Lead Crystal (7 February 2020):
George Ravenscroft, Roemer type drinking glass c. 1677. Victoria and Albert Museum Collection. C.530-1936 (British Galleries, room 56d, case 13). http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O5164/drinking-glass-ravenscroft-george/

Supplemental Twitter illustration (6 February 2020): View of Castel Dell'Oro Naples, "Tavola Strozzi" (1472), attributed toFrancesco Rosselli - San Martino Museum in Naples https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tavola_Strozzi. Detail Photo courtesy of Carl,  https://www.flickr.com/photos/70125105@N06/10506919956

Friar Mauritio (5 February 2020:Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, "Brother Mauritio" detail from, f. 19r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration (4 February 2020): Geological vein of gold courtesy of Geology In blog https://www.geologyin.com/2014/11/veins-and-hydrothermal-deposits.html

Veins of the Earth (3 February 2020): Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 5r, 6r.

Supplemental illustration (1 February 2020): Diderot’s Encyclopédie, the production of glass artificial pearls in 18th century France. http://www.bigbeadlittlebead.com/guides_and_information/history_of_faux_pearls.php

January 2020
Glass Pearls (31
Johannes Vermeer, "Girl with a pearl earring" (1665-6). Courtesy of Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, via Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johannes_Vermeer_(1632-1675)_-_The_Girl_With_The_Pearl_Earring_(1665).jpg

Supplemental illustration  (

Lakes of Flowers (29 January 2020):
The Miracle of the immobility of Santa Lucia, 1596/7, by Leandro Bassano (1557–1622).
S Giorgio Maggiore Venice, 1st Altar from the entrance left. Photo credit: Basilica S Giorgio Maggiore Edizione della Basilica 2000 P.26, courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bassano,Leandro_Martyr_S_Lucia.jpg

Supplemental illustration (28 January 2020): Manganese Amberina Footed Compote Bowl Candy Dish http://www.ebay.com/itm/Viking-Manganese-Amberina-Footed-Compote-Bowl-Candy-Dish-/171995205645?hash=item280bb6900d

Neri's Other Rubino (27 January 2020): Photo by Eric Hunt - Rhodochrosite, from the Sweet Home Mine, Colorado, private collection. Courtesy of Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodochrosite#mediaviewer/File:The_Searchlight_Rhodochrosite_Crystal.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (26 January 2020): Giambologna's horse models were created for the equestrian statue of Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, which was finished in 1594. http://store.metmuseum.org/sculpture/giambologna-medici-walking-horse-sculpture/invt/06060503

Descendants of a Glassmaker (24 January 2020):
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio); Christ Shown to the People (Ecce Homo), c.1570–76; oil on canvas; 43 x 37 5/16 in. (109.2 x 94.8 cm); Saint Louis Art Museum, Museum Purchase 10:1936. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Titian_-_Christ_Shown_to_the_People_(Ecce_Homo).jpg

Supplemental illustration:  (23 January 2020): Aquamanile, attributed to Roger von Helmarshausen, which may be the pseudonym of Theophilus Presbyter (fl. ca. 1070-1125). He started his career as a goldsmith in the Meuse valley, Cologne.

The Purse of Envy (22 January 2020):
Antonio Neri, "The Mineral Gold" Tesoro del Mondo,  (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600), f. 5r.

Supplemental illustration:  (21 January 2020):
Inquisition coat of arms, 1573. “EXURGE DOMINE ET JUDICA CAUSAM TUAM. PSALM. 73” [Rise Up, O Lord, and Judge Thine Own Cause!]. Enciclopedia Española. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Escudo_inquisicion.gif

Neri and The Inquisition (20 January 2020): Title page of Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Venice 1564), courtesy of Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_Librorum_Prohibitorum

Supplemental illustration:  (18 January 2020):
From the folk ballad Captain Ward and the Rainbow, or Ward the Pirate, (Child ballad 287).   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Ward_and_the_Rainbow

Pirates! (17 January 2020):
Sea fight with Barbary corsairs, c. 1581, Lorenzo Castro. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_Castro,_Lorenzo_-_A_Sea_Fight_with_Barbary_Corsairs_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Top Physician (15, 16 January 2020):
Frontispiece from Ricettario Fiorentino 1597 ed, by Neri di Jacopo Neri, Giovan Battista Benadù, Francesco Rosselli and Giovanni Galletti. Courtesy of Wellcome Trust. http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/result.html?*sform=wellcome-images&_IXACTION_=query&%24%3Dtoday=&_IXFIRST_=1&%3Did_ref=M0011854&_IXSPFX_=templates/t&_IXFPFX_=templates/t&_IXMAXHITS_=1

Antonio Neri's family arms, from his childhood residence in Florence. Ceiling panel of entrance vestibule, 27 Borgo Pinti, Florence. Neri family coat of arms. Photo by Paul Engle, 2011.

Supplemental illustration (14 January 2020):  Bronze statue of an Owl by the Flemish artist Giambologna (1529-1608) - Florence:Bargello Museum (Italy) http://wiki.cultured.com/people/Giambologna/

The Neighbors (13 January 2020):
"Portrait of Giamologna"by Hendrick Goltzius, Teylers Museum, courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Goltzius-Bologna.png

Supplemental illustration (11 January 2020): Title page from Antonio Neri's 1612 book L'Arte Vetraria [the art of glassmaking] http://www.cmog.org/library/larte-vetraria-distinta-libri-sette-del-rp-antonio-neri-fiorentino

Eyes of a Lynx (10 January 2020):
The seal of the Academia dei Lincei. Courtesy of Accademia dei Lincei, Palazzo Corsini - Via della Lungara, 10, Rome. https://catalogue.museogalileo.it/gallery/AccademiaLincei.html


Supplemental illustration: (

Filippo Sassetti (Goa, India 1509. “Goa fortissima India urbs in Christianorum potestatem anno salutis 1509 deuenit.” [detail] From Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum I, p. 54. First Latin edition of was published in 1572. (After an unidentified Portuguese manuscript).

Supplemental illustration: (7 January 2020): A grouping of ancient counterfeit coins, courtesy of Coinweek, photo credit: Mike Markowitz.

Reports from Parnassus (6 January 2020):
The Parnassus is a fresco painting by Raphael in the Raphael Rooms ("Stanze di Raffaello"), in the Palace of the Vatican in Rome, painted at the commission of Pope Julius II in 1511. [detail] courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Parnassus#mediaviewer/File:Rafael_-_El_Parnaso_(Estancia_del_Sello,_Roma,_1511).jpg


Supplemental illustration (4 January 2020):  "Apparatus to Attract the Lunar Humidity" Manly Palmer Hall collection of alchemical manuscripts, 1500-1825, Box 18, MS 102, v.10. Getty Research Institute,  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Manly_Palmer_Hall_collection_of_alchemical_manuscripts,_1500-1825_(1600)_(14597513437).jpg

Alchemical Glassware  (3 January 2020): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Supplemental illustration: (2 January 2020): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Art and Science (1 Januaryr 2020): Jacopo Ligozzi,1518,  fanciful glass vessels, ink and watercolor on paper. Galleria degli Uffizi. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-12537.html


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