Picture Credits 2020

March 2020
Sisters of an Alchemist (30 March 2020)  medicine, pharmacy, pharmacy, apothecary and assistant cooking medicine, woodcut, from: Hieronymus Brunschwig (circa 1450 - circa 1512), "Kleinen Destillierbuchs", print: Johann Grüninger, Strasbourg, 1500

Dianora Parenti (27 March 2020): Agnolo di Cosimo 'Bronzino,' "Portrait of Florentine Noblewoman" circa. 1540 Florence, (thought to be a cousin of Eleanor Toledo) Courtesy of  the San Diego Museum of Art. http://www.sdmart.org/

Supplemental illustration (26 March 2020): 1580 Bianca Cappello, second Wife of Francesco I de' Medici by Alessandro Allori (Galleria degli Uffizi - Firenze, Toscna, Italy). spots throughout image removed with Photoshop


Francesco and Bianca (25 March 2020):
"Antique print" Bianca Cappello and Grand Duke Francesco (with Don Antonio) -attriburtion unknown, 19th century. http://www.ebay.com/itm/Antica-Stampa-BIANCA-CAPPELLO-E-IL-GRANDUCA-FRANCESCO-DE-MEDICI-1870-Old-Print-/160798258706

Supplemental illustration (24 March 2020): A glass painting from Venice of 16th c. noblewoman, Bianca Cappello. Probably created around 1840 on Murano. https://www.rubylane.com/item/266027-1120/Venetian-Glass-Painting

Rise and Fall (23 March 2020):
“Merry Company,” 1623. Gerard van Honthorst (1590–1656),
Courtesy of Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss, Schleißheim, via Wikimedia commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Honthorst,_Gerard_van_-_Merry_Company_-_1623.jpg

Supplemental illustration (21 March 2020): Dutch kitchen scene in Great Hall at Treasurer's House, York. By Beuckelaer, c.1530-73

Alchemy in the Kitchen (20 March 2020): Antonio Neri, 1598-1600, Tesoro del Mondo, "Ars Preparatio Animalium”, MS Ferguson 67, f. 10r (detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Women in Alchemy ( 18-19 March 2020): Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 25r, 35r, 37r.

Caterina Sforza (16-17 March 2020): Portrait of Caterina Sforza, by Lorenzo di Credi (c.1463-1509)
Now in the Museum of Forlì (Pinacoteca Civica di Forlì, Italy)
Photo courtesy of: http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/monalisa/genealogy/073.htm
Via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Caterina_Sforza.jpg

Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (1498) Courtesy of Uffizi Gallery, Florence, via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Botticelli-primavera.jpg (detail - rightmost of the three graces)

Supplemental illustration (14 March 2020): The Beguines' hospital of Malines in Mechelen, Belgium in the 19th century. Source unknown.

The Béguines of Malines (13 March 2020):
A Béguine of Antwerp, from Pierre Hélyot, L'Histoire des ordres monastiques… 1719 (v.8) Courtesy of Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=9DQGAAAAQAAJ

Anna J Agnew (11, 12 March 2020)
1) Anna J. Agnew, Chicago Tribune, 9 March 1902, p. 43
2) H K Mulford advertising card showing vaccine was made in an adjacent facility to the glassworks.

Supplemental illustration (10 March 2020): Detail of Dragon-Stem Goblet, Venice, Italy, 1630-1670. Courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass 51.3.118.

Sara Vincx (9 March 2020):
Detail from: Roses and an iris in a glass vase, crabs and prawns on a pewter platter, a Facon-de-Venise wineglass, a stoneware ewer, a bunch of grapes. By Alexander Adriaenssen b. 1587, Antwerp, d. 1661, Antwerp

Supplemental illustration: (7 March 2020): Red House Cone glass museum, of a similar design but larger than the nearby site of the former Audnam glasshouse. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Guest Post: Kate Round (6 March 2020): Map of Stourbridge area canal system incl. Audnam Glassworks cone, 1774 map by Robert Whitworth. courtesy of "Old Maps of Stourbridge" blog http://www.oldstourbridgemaps.kjdocs.co.uk/

Thomas Edison's Lady Glass Workers (4-5 March 2020):
Fig. 1: Sealing the Glass Socket and Carbon Filament into the Flask of an Incandescent Lamp. 1889, Scribner's Magazine v. 6
Fig. 2: Laboratory notebook entry signed solely by Mina Edison.
Fig. 3: Wanted ad for Edison’s Harrison Lampworks factory. The Boston Globe (Boston Massachusetts) 22 June 1894, Fri., p. 9.

Fig. 4: Finishing work on tungsten lamps, c.1927.

Supplemental illustration (3 March 2020): Nef, or navicella. First half of 16th century, possibly by Arminia Vivarini.  Museo del Vetro, Murano, Venice Italy.  http://museovetro.visitmuve.it/it/il-museo/percorsi-e-collezioni/vetro-xv-xvi-xvii-secolo/

Arminia Vivarini (2March 2020): Nef Ewer, Late 16th century, Murano Italy. Image courtesy of the Milwaukee Art Museum.

February 2020
Supplemental Twitter illustration: (29 February 2020): American, circa 1909, A Tiffany Studios leaded glass and bronze lamp comprising a "salamander" design on a gilded bronze "bird skeleton" table base. Courtesy Lillian Nassau 

The Galssmaker's Salamander (28 February 2020):
Michael Maier, Atalanta fugiens, hoc est, Emblemata Nova de Secretis Naturae Chymica... (Oppenheim: Johann Theodori de Bry, 1617), emblem 29.

Supplemental illustration (27 February 2020):  (See: I. Lazar (2005) 'An Oil Lamp depicting a Roman Glass Furnace - a new find from Slovenia' in Instrumentum 22, Dec. 2005. The lamp itself is in the Pokrajinski Muzej Ptuj, Slovenia.) http://www.theglassmakers.co.uk/archiveromanglassmakers/furnace1.htm

Early Modern Glass Furnace (26 February 2020):  From "De re metallica", Agricola (Georg Bauer) 1556. Georg Agricola, Zwölf Bücher vom Berg- und Hüttenwesen, übers. v. Carl Schiffner, Berlin 1928, S. 502 ff. Scanned by Bibliothek für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte / Köln, http://www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/ courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agricola-3.png

Supplemental illustration (25 February 2020): North Italian apothecary's shop in a Hebrew manuscript of the Canon Medicinae of Avicenna, c. 1450-75. Bibliotheca Universitaria, Bologna, Italy, MS 2197, fol. 492. Courtesy of  http://www.alchemywebsite.com/Equipment_Pharmacies_manuscript.html

The Kabbalah (24 February):
Kabbalistic Sephiroth Tree, from Portae Lucis, Paulus Ricius (Trans. of “Shaare ora” by Joseph Gikatilla) Augsburg, 1516.

Supplemental illustration (22 February 2020) : Mater Dolorosa, Titian, 1554  Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. (The Virgin Mary in a robe painted with precious ultramarine pigment)  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mater_Dolorosa_by_Titian.jpg

Ultramarine Blue(21 February 2020) :
Photo: Krén, Emil and Daniel Marx, Web Gallery of Art. Frescoes in the Cappella Scrovegni , Padua by Giotto, 1306, via http://drawingatduke.blogspot.com/2012/10/giotto-di-bondone.html

Supplemental illustration (20 February 2020): Alchemical glassware,Andreas Libavius: Alchymia, 1606

Alchemical Glassware  (19 February 2020): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Supplemental illustration (18 February 2020): Carolyn Baum, Eternal Bloom, 2013. Flameworked soft glass, wire, fieldstone. H 12, W 12, D 10. https://glassquarterly.wordpress.com/2013/07/05/opening-true-to-life-glass-exhibition-inspired-by-blaschka-flowers-debuts-at-pittsburgh-glass-center/

Golden Yellow Glass (17 February 2020):
Created in 1995, by the studio of Dale Chihuly, this chandelier is made of 900 pieces of hand-blown glass. Weighing more than 1,000 pounds and measuring nine feet long and six feet wide, it contains 500 feet of yellow glass neon tubing. It is displayed at the Columbus, Indiana Visitors Center. Photo courtesy of the Center, http://www.kid-at-art.com/htdoc/cglass.html

Supplemental Twitter illustration (15 February 2020): Evangelista Torrecelli's experiments in Florence, by Gaspar Schott "Technica Curiosa" Wurzburg, 1664 -image from 1687 ed., p.205 here:  books.google.com/books?id=zkpAAAAAcAAJ

Torricelli and Glass  (14 February 2020):
Evangelista Torricelli by Lorenzo Lippi (circa 1647, Galleria Silvano Lodi & Due), courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Evangelista_Torricelli_by_Lorenzo_Lippi_(circa_1647,_Galleria_Silvano_Lodi_%26_Due).jpg

Benjamin Franklin and Glass (12 February 2020): Benjamin Franklin by Joseph Duplessis, 1778

Supplemental illustration(11 February 2020): Image from ‘Account of the Glass Drops’ by Robert Moray, 17 August 1661. Royal Society Classified Papers Cl.P/3i/57  courtesy of  The Royal Society http://blogs.royalsociety.org/history-of-science/2014/02/24/prince-ruperts-drops/

Hooke's Tears (10 February 2020):
From Micrographia, by Robert Hooke, 1664. Detail of illustration between pages 10, 11.
http://archive.org/stream/mobot31753000817897#page/32/mode/2up

Supplemental illustration (8 February 2020): Rummer with Raven's Head Seal, (detail) Savoy Glasshouse, George Ravenscroft, London 1676-1678 Corning Museum of Glass Acc.# 50.2.2  https://www.cmog.org/artwork/rummer-ravens-head-seal

Lead Crystal (7 February 2020):
George Ravenscroft, Roemer type drinking glass c. 1677. Victoria and Albert Museum Collection. C.530-1936 (British Galleries, room 56d, case 13). http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O5164/drinking-glass-ravenscroft-george/

Supplemental Twitter illustration (6 February 2020): View of Castel Dell'Oro Naples, "Tavola Strozzi" (1472), attributed toFrancesco Rosselli - San Martino Museum in Naples https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tavola_Strozzi. Detail Photo courtesy of Carl,  https://www.flickr.com/photos/70125105@N06/10506919956

Friar Mauritio (5 February 2020:Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, "Brother Mauritio" detail from, f. 19r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration (4 February 2020): Geological vein of gold courtesy of Geology In blog https://www.geologyin.com/2014/11/veins-and-hydrothermal-deposits.html

Veins of the Earth (3 February 2020): Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 5r, 6r.

Supplemental illustration (1 February 2020): Diderot’s Encyclopédie, the production of glass artificial pearls in 18th century France. http://www.bigbeadlittlebead.com/guides_and_information/history_of_faux_pearls.php

January 2020
Glass Pearls (31 January 2020):
Johannes Vermeer, "Girl with a pearl earring" (1665-6). Courtesy of Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, via Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johannes_Vermeer_(1632-1675)_-_The_Girl_With_The_Pearl_Earring_(1665).jpg

Supplemental illustration  (30 January 2020): Titian used glazes of red lake to create the vivid crimson of the robes in "The Vendramin Family Venerating a Relic of the True Cross", completed 1550-60 (detail). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_pigment#/media/File:Titian_-_The_Vendramin_Family_Venerating_a_Relic_of_the_True_Cross_(detail)_-_WGA22811.jpg

Lakes of Flowers (29 January 2020):
The Miracle of the immobility of Santa Lucia, 1596/7, by Leandro Bassano (1557–1622).
S Giorgio Maggiore Venice, 1st Altar from the entrance left. Photo credit: Basilica S Giorgio Maggiore Edizione della Basilica 2000 P.26, courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bassano,Leandro_Martyr_S_Lucia.jpg

Supplemental illustration (28 January 2020): Manganese Amberina Footed Compote Bowl Candy Dish http://www.ebay.com/itm/Viking-Manganese-Amberina-Footed-Compote-Bowl-Candy-Dish-/171995205645?hash=item280bb6900d

Neri's Other Rubino (27 January 2020): Photo by Eric Hunt - Rhodochrosite, from the Sweet Home Mine, Colorado, private collection. Courtesy of Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodochrosite#mediaviewer/File:The_Searchlight_Rhodochrosite_Crystal.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (26 January 2020): Giambologna's horse models were created for the equestrian statue of Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, which was finished in 1594. http://store.metmuseum.org/sculpture/giambologna-medici-walking-horse-sculpture/invt/06060503

Descendants of a Glassmaker (24 January 2020):
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio); Christ Shown to the People (Ecce Homo), c.1570–76; oil on canvas; 43 x 37 5/16 in. (109.2 x 94.8 cm); Saint Louis Art Museum, Museum Purchase 10:1936. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Titian_-_Christ_Shown_to_the_People_(Ecce_Homo).jpg

Supplemental illustration:  (23 January 2020): Aquamanile, attributed to Roger von Helmarshausen, which may be the pseudonym of Theophilus Presbyter (fl. ca. 1070-1125). He started his career as a goldsmith in the Meuse valley, Cologne.

The Purse of Envy (22 January 2020):
Antonio Neri, "The Mineral Gold" Tesoro del Mondo,  (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600), f. 5r.

Supplemental illustration:  (21 January 2020):
Inquisition coat of arms, 1573. “EXURGE DOMINE ET JUDICA CAUSAM TUAM. PSALM. 73” [Rise Up, O Lord, and Judge Thine Own Cause!]. Enciclopedia Española. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Escudo_inquisicion.gif

Neri and The Inquisition (20 January 2020): Title page of Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Venice 1564), courtesy of Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_Librorum_Prohibitorum

Supplemental illustration:  (18 January 2020):
From the folk ballad Captain Ward and the Rainbow, or Ward the Pirate, (Child ballad 287).   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Ward_and_the_Rainbow

Pirates! (17 January 2020):
Sea fight with Barbary corsairs, c. 1581, Lorenzo Castro. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_Castro,_Lorenzo_-_A_Sea_Fight_with_Barbary_Corsairs_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Top Physician (15, 16 January 2020):
Frontispiece from Ricettario Fiorentino 1597 ed, by Neri di Jacopo Neri, Giovan Battista Benadù, Francesco Rosselli and Giovanni Galletti. Courtesy of Wellcome Trust. http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/result.html?*sform=wellcome-images&_IXACTION_=query&%24%3Dtoday=&_IXFIRST_=1&%3Did_ref=M0011854&_IXSPFX_=templates/t&_IXFPFX_=templates/t&_IXMAXHITS_=1

Antonio Neri's family arms, from his childhood residence in Florence. Ceiling panel of entrance vestibule, 27 Borgo Pinti, Florence. Neri family coat of arms. Photo by Paul Engle, 2011.

Supplemental illustration (14 January 2020):  Bronze statue of an Owl by the Flemish artist Giambologna (1529-1608) - Florence:Bargello Museum (Italy) http://wiki.cultured.com/people/Giambologna/

The Neighbors (13 January 2020):
"Portrait of Giamologna"by Hendrick Goltzius, Teylers Museum, courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Goltzius-Bologna.png

Supplemental illustration (11 January 2020): Title page from Antonio Neri's 1612 book L'Arte Vetraria [the art of glassmaking] http://www.cmog.org/library/larte-vetraria-distinta-libri-sette-del-rp-antonio-neri-fiorentino

Eyes of a Lynx (10 January 2020):
The seal of the Academia dei Lincei. Courtesy of Accademia dei Lincei, Palazzo Corsini - Via della Lungara, 10, Rome. https://catalogue.museogalileo.it/gallery/AccademiaLincei.html


Supplemental illustration: (9 January 2020): Spherical bezoar stones, one from unknown animal, 1551-1750 the other (right) from a camel. Photo Photo number: L0058457, Wellcome Trust Images, courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spherical_bezoar_stone_from_unknown_animal,_1551-1750_Wellcome_L0058457.jpg

Filippo Sassetti (8 January 2020):Goa, India 1509. “Goa fortissima India urbs in Christianorum potestatem anno salutis 1509 deuenit.” [detail] From Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum I, p. 54. First Latin edition of was published in 1572. (After an unidentified Portuguese manuscript).

Supplemental illustration: (7 January 2020): A grouping of ancient counterfeit coins, courtesy of Coinweek, photo credit: Mike Markowitz.

Reports from Parnassus (6 January 2020):
The Parnassus is a fresco painting by Raphael in the Raphael Rooms ("Stanze di Raffaello"), in the Palace of the Vatican in Rome, painted at the commission of Pope Julius II in 1511. [detail] courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Parnassus#mediaviewer/File:Rafael_-_El_Parnaso_(Estancia_del_Sello,_Roma,_1511).jpg


Supplemental illustration (4 January 2020):  "Apparatus to Attract the Lunar Humidity" Manly Palmer Hall collection of alchemical manuscripts, 1500-1825, Box 18, MS 102, v.10. Getty Research Institute,  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Manly_Palmer_Hall_collection_of_alchemical_manuscripts,_1500-1825_(1600)_(14597513437).jpg

Alchemical Glassware  (3 January 2020): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Supplemental illustration: (2 January 2020): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Art and Science (1 Januaryr 2020): Jacopo Ligozzi,1518,  fanciful glass vessels, ink and watercolor on paper. Galleria degli Uffizi. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-12537.html


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