Picture Credits 2018


December 2018
Supplemental Twitter illustration (30, 31 December  2018): The four elements in alchemy are portrayed in Johann Daniel Mylius’ Philosophia reformata (1622) as representing the four stages of the alchemical opus. From left to right are earth, water, air and fire.

Washing Molten Glass(28 December  2018):
Washing, sorting and carrying cullet, from Denis Diderot 1772. Recueil des planches sur les sciences, les arts libéraux, et les arts mechaniques : avec leur explication, v. 10, plate 16. Paris : Briasson, 1772. Image courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass, featured (fig.3) in “Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Women Working with Glass,” http://www.cmog.org/article/breaking-glass-ceiling-women-working-glass

Supplemental illustration (27 December  2018): Jacopo Ligozzi,1518,  fanciful glass vessels, ink and watercolor on paper. Galleria degli Uffizi. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-12537.html

Cross Pollination (26 December  2018):
The art of stonework, from MS Ferguson 67, f. 7r, (1598-1600)
Antonio Neri. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration (25 December  2018): Title page from Antonio Neri's 1612 book L'Arte Vetraria [the art of glassmaking] http://www.cmog.org/library/larte-vetraria-distinta-libri-sette-del-rp-antonio-neri-fiorentino

Eyes of a Lynx (24 December 2018):
The seal of the Academia dei Lincei. Courtesy of Accademia dei Lincei, Palazzo Corsini - Via della Lungara, 10, Rome. http://www.lincei.it/

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (22 December 2018): American, circa 1909, A Tiffany Studios leaded glass and bronze lamp comprising a "salamander" design on a gilded bronze "bird skeleton" table base. Courtesy Lillian Nassau http://www.lilliannassau.com/catalogue/tiffany-studios-lamps/tiffany-studiossalamander-table-lamp/

Salamander (21 December 2018):
Michael Maier, Atalanta fugiens, hoc est, Emblemata Nova de Secretis Naturae Chymica... (Oppenheim: Johann Theodori de Bry, 1617), emblem 29.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (20 December 2018):copper ruby glass cullet, courtesy moderustic http://www.moderustic.com/Copper-Ruby-Red-G75-Topper.html .

Rosichiero Glass (19 December 2018):
Venice Sunset, Artist unknown, courtesy of "free wallpaper" at http://www.artworkslimitededitions.co.uk/desktopwallpaper.php - Please contact me if you know the artist.

Supplemental illustration: (18 December 2018): - One of the isolation cells in the Bargello Prison (Florence, Gabinetto Fotografico) Courtesy of http://www.edwardgoldberg.net/p/story-begins.html

The Duke's Mouthwash (17 December 2018):
Ferdinando de’ Medici (1549-1609), Scipione Pulzone (1544 - 1598), Private collection. http://www.artfact.com/auction-lot/scipione-pulzone,-portrait-of-ferdinando-de-medi-1116-c-d137af3e89

Supplemental Twitter illustration (15 December 2018): The young Queen Elizabeth I (here in about 1563) liked to wear bright reds, before she adopted the more sober image of the "Virgin Queen". Her satin gown was probably dyed with kermes. Steven van der Meulen (fl. 1543–1568) - Scanned in the US from Sotheby's Catalogue #L07123,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red#/media/File:Elizabeth_I_Steven_Van_Der_Meulen.jpg

Dyed In the Grain (14 December 2018)
Dyeing wool cloth, from "Des Proprietez des Choses", Bartholomaeus Anglicus, 1482. British Library Royal MS 15.E.iii, folio 269 Image via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dyeing_British_Library_Royal_MS_15.E.iii,_f._269_1482.jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration (13 December 2018): Blätter des Manns Walfarn, by Alois Auer, Vienna: Imperial Printing Office, 1853. Courtesy of the Wikimedia foundation: Nature print, (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nature_print,_Alois_Auer_.jpg).

Laughing In the Fern (12 December 2018):
Allain Manesson Mallet  1719, "Der Mont. – Lune"

Supplemental Twitter illustration (11 December 2018): Alchemical images from the Beinecke Library Johan Isaac Hollandus, 15th century Alchemical and Rosicrucian compendium, courtesy  rara1avis1.blogspot.com.

Isaac Hollandus (10 December 2018):
Illustration from: Isaac J. Hollandus, Chymische Schriften, Vienna 1773. Earlier 1666 ed is here (p. 13) http://books.google.com/books?id=XFw6AAAAcAAJ

Supplemental Twitter illustration (8 December 2018): A Masonic flask made at the Kene, New Hampshire, glassworks where Henry schoolcraft was superindentant following his time at Lake Dunmore, in Vermont.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flask_with_Masonic_decoration,_Keene-Marlboro-Street_Glass_Works,_New_Hampshire,_c._1800-1825,_mold-blown_turquoise_glass_-_Albany_Institute_of_History_and_Art_-_DSC08155.JPG

"Glass" A Poem by Henry Schoolcraft (December 2018): Portrait of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, frontispiece from Notes on the Iroquois: Or, Contributions to American History, Antiquities, and General Ethnology, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. (Albany: E. H. Pease & Company, 1847), p. ii.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (6 December 2018): Glass ,Venetian Murano ewer, aventurine glass, Salviati 1880's https://www.pinterest.com/laurapadoan1/salviati/

Aventurine (5 December 2018):
Classe VI, n. 3458. / Figure 5: Small amphora in aventurine glass with handles in “rigadin” decorated with colorless “morise”, Murano, Salviati doc.http://www.cairn.info/revue-archeosciences-2013-1-page-135.htm (e verre aventurine (« avventurina ») : son histoire, les recettes, les analyses, sa fabrication, by Moretti, Gratuze, Hreglich.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (4 December 2018): View of Castel Dell'Oro Naples, "Tavola Strozzi" (1472), attributed toFrancesco Rosselli - San Martino Museum in Naples https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tavola_Strozzi. Detail Photo courtesy of Carl,  https://www.flickr.com/photos/70125105@N06/10506919956

Friar Mauritio (3 December 2018):Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, "Brother Mauritio" detail from, f. 19r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental Twitter illustration (1 December 2018): Plaque: Hercules Overcoming the Centaur Nessus, ca. 1570–80 Annibale Fontana (Italian, Milanese, 1504–1587) Rock crystal in enameled gold frame of later date . https://marinni.dreamwidth.org/642764.html?style=light

November 2018
Glass or Rock? (30 November 2018):
Rock crystal ewer, Egypt(1000-1050), V&A Museum, #7904-1862, Photo via Wikimedia Commons  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rock_crystal_ewer.jpg

Supplemental illustration (29 November 2018):  (See: I. Lazar (2005) 'An Oil Lamp depicting a Roman Glass Furnace - a new find from Slovenia' in Instrumentum 22, Dec. 2005. The lamp itself is in the Pokrajinski Muzej Ptuj, Slovenia.) http://www.theglassmakers.co.uk/archiveromanglassmakers/furnace1.htm

Early Modern Glass Furnace (28 November 2018):  From "De re metallica", Agricola (Georg Bauer) 1556. Georg Agricola, Zwölf Bücher vom Berg- und Hüttenwesen, übers. v. Carl Schiffner, Berlin 1928, S. 502 ff. Scanned by Bibliothek für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte / Köln, http://www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/ courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agricola-3.png

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (27 November 2018): Ottavio Leoni Portrait of Francesco Maria del Monte (1578–1630). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottavio_Leoni

The Duke's Oil (26 November 2018):
Trajan's Column, Rome, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1758), Hind 51iii(of vii). Etching and engraving, Plate 31 from the Vedute di Roma (Views of Rome). Courtesy of R. E Lewis and Daughter http://www.relewis.com/piranesi-trajans-column.html

Filigrana (23 November 2018): Mezza Filigrana footed vase, circa 1950s, by Dino Martens (1894-1970) for Aureliano Toso. http://www.artnet.com/artists/dino-martens/past-auction-results

Flameworked filigrana style miniature vessels by Emilio Santini, Photo courtesy of the artist.
Incalmo 

(21-22 November 2018): Tapio Wirkkala for Venini: Incalmo Bolle,  http://designgush.com/2011/03/30/tapio-wirkkala-for-venini-incalmo-bolle-copy/

Murano. 'A canne di filigrana ed incalmo' plate, 16th century. D. 28.3 cm. Clear glass, fused clear glass rods, opaque white threads and spirals. http://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/30038985_a-canne-di-filigrana-ed-incalmo-plate-16th-century http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/08.138.2 From www.metmuseum.org - Abbasid period (750–1258), 9t–10th century Iraq or Syria. Glass, greenish yellow, blown in two parts, impressed with tongs

Supplemental Twitter illustration (20 November 2018): Orto Botanico (botanical gardens) at Pisa Attribution of image unknown,  courtesy of http://www.italianbotanicalheritage.com/it/scheda.php?struttura=752

Botanical Gardens (19 November 2018):
Rudolf II as "Vertumnus" by the Milanese painter Giuseppe Arcimboldo. (c. 1590), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arcimboldovertemnus.jpeg

Supplemental illustration: (17 November 2018): Smolník – Royal Mining Town, Photo courtesy of  http://en.infoglobe.cz/tips-for-trips/sk-smolnik-royal-mining-town/

A Recipe for Transmutation (16 November 2018): Recovering and concentrating Vitriol from a mining operation in the 16th century, from Agricola, De Re Metalica (1580) http://www.chokier.com/IMAGES/ROCHER/Agricola-De_re_metallica-Couperose.jpg

Purpurine (14, 15 November 2018):
1) Fabergé, St. Petersburg. Cherry Sprig. c.1900. The cherries are made of purpurine, the leaves are nephrite, the stalk, sprouting from its rock-crystal pot is made of gold.  Géza von Hapsburg: Fabergé, Imperial Craftsman and His World, London: Booth-Clibborn, 2000, p.117

2) Red Glass Beads, 1st cent. BCE, Tissamaharama, Sri Lanka. Rösch, Cordelia; Hock, Rainer; Schüssler, Ulrich; Yule, Paul; Hannibal, Anne. “Electron Microprobe Analysis and X-ray Diffraction Methods in Archaeometry: Investigations on Pre-Islamic Beads from the Sultanate of Oman” in: European Journal of Mineralogy, 9 (1997), 763–783. (Specifically, beads found at Tissamaharama, pp. 771,772). http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/propylaeumdok/volltexte/2009/305

3) A small Medusa's head in opaque red glass made sometime in the first century AD Approximately one cm high and as wide, Corning Museum of Glass in NY. http://www.cmog.org/artwork/disk

4) Roman bowl in red opaque glass  sold at Christie's, London, 2010. A Roman opaque red glass patella cup (haematinon) c.1st cent. BCE/CE Sale#5488, lot 47.
http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/ancient-art-antiquities/a-roman-opaque-red-glass-patella-cup-5358311-details.aspx

5) Portrait of Roman mosaicist Michelangelo Barberi, 1809. Italian pencil, sanguine on paper http://www.rusmuseum.ru/eng/collections/drawing/photos



6)  One of a pair of Tazzas, Leopoldo Bonafede,  Imperial Glassworks (Russian, c.1867) purpurine, gilded bronze, colored glass. http://art.thewalters.org/detail/77444/pair-of-tazzas/


What Goes Around Comes Around (11 November 2018): Map of Ulm, Germany, Ulm - "Ulma Imperialis in Sueuia urbs, fortissimo aquae et muror ambitu, magnifico templo, et Danubij propiquitate illustris."  Georg Braun & Franz Hogenberg 1570-78. Copper engraving, original color in outline and wash. 107 by 470mm (4¼ by 18½ inches). B&H Vol. I. #31  https://www.bergbook.com/images/21441-01.jpg

Supplemental illustration (10 November 2018): Giovanni Stradano or Jan Van der Straet, Alchemists in the Uffizi 1571, from the Studiolo of Francesco de' Medici. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stradanus

The Reluctant Glassmaker  (9 November 2018): The Sun, Robert Fludd from Utriusque Cosmi (1617),v. 2, p. 19.

Supplemental illustration (8 November 2018): Quentin Massys, 1466–1530. “Der Goldwäger und seine Frau”, 1514. Courtesy Musée du Louvre, Paris. http://www.akg-images.de/archive/Der-Goldwager-und-seine-Frau-2UMDHU1USH2O.html

Reflections on the Mirror (7 November 2018): Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait (1434), National Gallery, London, courtesy of Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Van_Eyck_-_Arnolfini_Portrait.jpg
Detail of same.

Supplemental illustration (6 November 2018): North Italian apothecary's shop in a Hebrew manuscript of the Canon Medicinae of Avicenna, c. 1450-75. Bibliotheca Universitaria, Bologna, Italy, MS 2197, fol. 492. Courtesy of  http://www.alchemywebsite.com/Equipment_Pharmacies_manuscript.html

The Kabbalah (5 November 2018):
Kabbalistic Sephiroth Tree, from Portae Lucis, Paulus Ricius (Trans. of “Shaare ora” by Joseph Gikatilla) Augsburg, 1516.

Supplemental illustration (3 November 2018) : Mater Dolorosa, Titian, 1554  Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. (The Virgin Mary in a robe painted with precious ultramarine pigment)  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mater_Dolorosa_by_Titian.jpg

Ultramarine Blue(2 November 2018) :
Photo: Krén, Emil and Daniel Marx, Web Gallery of Art. Frescoes in the Cappella Scrovegni , Padua by Giotto, 1306, via http://drawingatduke.blogspot.com/2012/10/giotto-di-bondone.html

Supplemental illustration: (1 November 2018) Medieval era enamel beaker once owned by Piero de' Medici, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Cloisters, New York. http://joelgarten.com/blog/?p=171

October 2018
Enamel (31 October 2018): Enameled Pendant, Pope Gregory IX, attr. Italian, mid 17th  c.
Mid Seventeenth century double sided enameled pendant. On one side with the image of Pope Gregory IX on the other side St Ambrosius. Probably Italian ca 1650. via https://www.pinterest.com/pin/75716837458523173/

Supplemental illustration (30 October 2018): 16th century miniature of Aleppo (Halep) , Syria, by Matrakçi Nasuh (cir.1480-1564). http://ankaraolgunlasma.meb.k12.tr/tema/icerikler/matrakci-nasuh_1564182.html

Neri's Aleppo Connection (29 October 2018):
1) Drummond, Alexander (1754), Travels through different cities of Germany, Italy, Greece, and several parts of Asia, as far as the banks of the Euphrates (London: Printed by W. Strahan for the author, 1754) OCLC 1319396, http://openlibrary.org/books/OL6953903M/Travels_through_different_cities_of_Germany_Italy_Greece_and_several_parts_of_Asia_as_far_as_the_ban Artist unknown, Image courtesy of Wikimedia: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1754_Aleppo_Drummond.png

Supplemental illustration (27 October 2018):  "Apparatus to Attract the Lunar Humidity" Manly Palmer Hall collection of alchemical manuscripts, 1500-1825, Box 18, MS 102, v.10. Getty Research Institute,  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Manly_Palmer_Hall_collection_of_alchemical_manuscripts,_1500-1825_(1600)_(14597513437).jpg

Alchemical Glassware  (26 October 2018): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (25 October 2018): Evangelista Torrecelli's experiments in Florence, by Gaspar Schott "Technica Curiosa" Wurzburg, 1664 -image from 1687 ed., p.205 here:  books.google.com/books?id=zkpAAAAAcAAJ

Torricelli and Glass  (24 October 2018):
Evangelista Torricelli by Lorenzo Lippi (circa 1647, Galleria Silvano Lodi & Due), courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Evangelista_Torricelli_by_Lorenzo_Lippi_(circa_1647,_Galleria_Silvano_Lodi_%26_Due).jpg

Supplemental illustration (23 October 2018): Portrait of Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-92) (oil on canvas), French School, (17th century) / Private Collection, a copy of an original dated to Montaignes 1580-81stay in Italy.  http://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2008/books-manuscripts-and-photographs-including-nine-manuscripts-by-andre-breton-from-the-simone-collinet-collection-pf8005/lot.15.html

Michel Montaigne (22 October 2018):
Portrait of Michel Montaigne Anonymous (17th century), based on Kerkado (ca. 1580) http://www.qotd.org/quotes/Montaigne

A Philosophical Explosion  (19-20 October 2018): courtesy of the American Ceramics Society http://ceramics.org/ceramic-tech-today/video-glass-science-of-prince-ruperts-drop-captured-with-high-speed-cameras

Thomas Hobbes portrait, by  John Michael Wright, 17th cent.  Courtesy of National Portrait Gallery: NPG 225, via Wikimedia commons  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hobbes_(portrait).jpg

From ‘Account of the Glass Drops’ by Robert Moray, 17 August 1661. Royal Society Classified Papers Cl.P/3i/57  Courtesy of http://blogs.royalsociety.org/history-of-science/2014/02/24/prince-ruperts-drops/

Supplemental illustration (18 October 2018): Image from ‘Account of the Glass Drops’ by Robert Moray, 17 August 1661. Royal Society Classified Papers Cl.P/3i/57  Courtesy of http://blogs.royalsociety.org/history-of-science/2014/02/24/prince-ruperts-drops/

Hooke's Tears (17 October 2018):
From Micrographia, by Robert Hooke, 1664. Detail of illustration between pages 10, 11.
http://archive.org/stream/mobot31753000817897#page/32/mode/2up

Supplemental illustration (16 October 2018): Domenico Remps (1620–1699)
Cabinet of Curiosities, 1690s, oil on canvas, Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cabinet_of_Curiosities_1690s_Domenico_Remps.jpg

Secret Laboratory (15 October 2018):
The studiolo of Francesco de' Medici, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. Photo courtesy of http://static.digischool.nl/ckv2/hof/Hofcultuur3/studiolo.htm

Supplemental illustration (11 October 2018):
 Portrait of Torbern Olof Bergman (1735-1784), Swedish, by Ulrika Pasch. Courtesy of https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Torbern_Olof_Bergman.jpg

Fall from Grace  (11 October 2018):
Felice Fontana portrait, attribution unknown (to me).
http://www.internetculturale.it/opencms/opencms/it/archivionovita/2005/novita_19.html
http://www.imss.fi.it/news/ifelicefontana.html
Here for a photo of the Fontana bust on display at La Specola: http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/result.html?*sform=wellcome-images&_IXACTION_=query&%24%3Dtoday=&_IXFIRST_=1&%3Did_ref=M0018822&_IXSPFX_=templates/t&_IXFPFX_=templates/t&_IXMAXHITS_=1

Supplemental illustration (11 October 2018): Two alchemists seeming to produce gold from a furnace; the accompanying text satirises those who pursue alchemy for gold alone. Engraving by C. Weigel, 1698. Courtesy Wellcome Library collection http://catalogue.wellcomelibrary.org/record=b1195049

Sal Ammoniac (10 October 2018):
Ammoniac (skeletal crystals to 10 sm). Uroch. Kukhi-Malik, Fan-yagnobskoe coal mine, near Ravat, Tadjikistan, Middle Asia, CIS, Yagnob. (c) A. A. Evseev, photo courtesy of http://www.jewellery.org.ua/stones-katalog-engl/mineral-nashatir.htm

Supplemental illustration (9 October 2018): Jacob van Loo, A 17th cent. Dutch Glass Factory, 163 x 215 cm, Oil on canvas. Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen https://www.pubhist.com/w3934

Roasting the Frit (8 October 2018):
Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert eds., L'Encyclopédie, Vol. 10 (1772), "Glass Making,” Raking Out Baked Frit (Verrerie – Verrerie en bois ou petite verrerie à pivette) fig. 15.

Supplemental illustration (6 October 2018): Diderot’s Encyclopédie, the production of glass artificial pearls in 18th century France. http://www.bigbeadlittlebead.com/guides_and_information/history_of_faux_pearls.php

Glass Pearls (5 October 2018):
Johannes Vermeer, "Girl with a pearl earring" (1665-6). Courtesy of Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, via Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johannes_Vermeer_(1632-1675)_-_The_Girl_With_The_Pearl_Earring_(1665).jpg

Supplemental illustration (4 October 2018): The library of the University of Leiden (1610), where Christoph Plantin worked from 1583 to 1585. Picture courtesy of Frédéric Barbier http://histoire-du-livre.blogspot.com/2012_04_01_archive.html (28 Avril 2012). University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in ''Stedeboeck der Nederlanden'', Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649

Neri the Scholar (3 October 2018):
Francesco Bartolozzi, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, fine XVIII sec.
http://babilonia61.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Francesco-Bartolozzi-Biblioteca-Medicea-Laurenziana-fine-XVIII-sec.--1024x619.jpg

Supplemental illustration (2 October 2018): A modern take on traditional trade beads by American flamework artist  Harold Williams Cooney. Photo by artist. @AmericanBeads

Glass Beads (1 October 2018):
String of Six-layer glass chevron trade beads from Venice, popular as trade currency in the 15th 16th and 17th century (photo attr. unknown).

September 2018
Supplemental illustration  (29 September 2018): A coach of the middle of the seventeenth century: from an engraving by John Dunstall.A Student's History of England, v. 2 (of 3),1509-1689, by Samuel Rawson Gardiner http://www.gutenberg.org/files/40192/40192-h/40192-h.htm

Neri's Travels (28 September 2018):
“Roma,” Antonio Neri, from Tesoro del Mondo (Neri 1598–1600), Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections.

Supplemental illustration (27 September 2018): Carolyn Baum, Eternal Bloom, 2013. Flameworked soft glass, wire, fieldstone. H 12, W 12, D 10. https://glassquarterly.wordpress.com/2013/07/05/opening-true-to-life-glass-exhibition-inspired-by-blaschka-flowers-debuts-at-pittsburgh-glass-center/

Golden Yellow Glass (26 November 2018):
Created in 1995, by the studio of Dale Chihuly, this chandelier is made of 900 pieces of hand-blown glass. Weighing more than 1,000 pounds and measuring nine feet long and six feet wide, it contains 500 feet of yellow glass neon tubing. It is displayed at the Columbus, Indiana Visitors Center. Photo courtesy of the Center, http://www.kid-at-art.com/htdoc/cglass.html

Supplemental illustration (25 September 2018): Rummer with Raven's Head Seal, (detail) Savoy Glasshouse, George Ravenscroft, London 1676-1678 Corning Museum of Glass Acc.# 50.2.2  https://www.cmog.org/artwork/rummer-ravens-head-seal

Lead Crystal (24 September 2018):
George Ravenscroft, Roemer type drinking glass c. 1677. Victoria and Albert Museum Collection. C.530-1936 (British Galleries, room 56d, case 13). http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O5164/drinking-glass-ravenscroft-george/

Supplemental illustration (22 September 2018) Geological vein of gold courtesy of Geology In blog https://www.geologyin.com/2014/11/veins-and-hydrothermal-deposits.html

Veins of the Earth (21 September 2018)Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 5r, 6r.

Supplemental illustration (20 September 2018): The former church of San Jacopo in Campo Corbolini in Florence, administered by the Knights of Malta (aka of Saint John) http://firenzeneidettagli.blogspot.com/2013/10/i-templari-di-san-jacopo-in-campo.html

Knights of Malta  (19 September 2018):
Michelangelo Caravaggio, “Fra Antonio Martelli, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Malta,” from about 1608. (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Photo courtesy of http://artery.wbur.org/2014/04/18/mfa-caravaggio

Supplemental illustration: (18 September 2018): Michelangelo Caravaggio, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto, c. 1597. Casino Ludovisi. Courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter,_Neptune_and_Pluto

Alchemist Cardinal (17 September 2018):
Ottavio Leoni Portrait of Francesco Maria del Monte (1578–1630). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottavio_Leoni

Supplemental illustration (15 September, 2018): Photo of Sir Thomas Phillips, ca. 1860. from frontispiece of "Bibliotheca Phillippica: manuscripts on vellum and paper from the 9th to the 18th centuries from the celebrated collection formed by Sir Thomas Phillipps : the final selection." , New York : H.P. Kraus, c1979.  http://www.themorgan.org/collection/crusader-bible/provenance

Bibliomaniac (14 September, 2018):
Broadway Tower, Worcestershire. The home of Phillipps' Middle Hill Press. Photo W. Lloyd MacKenzie, via Flickr @ http://www.flickr.com/photos/saffron_blaze/ via http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Broadway_Tower_2012.jpg


Thomas Edison's Lady Glass Workers (12-13 September, 2018):
Fig. 1: Sealing the Glass Socket and Carbon Filament into the Flask of an Incandescent Lamp. 1889, Scribner's Magazine v. 6
Fig. 2: Laboratory notebook entry signed solely by Mina Edison.
Fig. 3: Wanted ad for Edison’s Harrison Lampworks factory. The Boston Globe (Boston Massachusetts) 22 June 1894, Fri., p. 9.
Fig. 4: Finishing work on tungsten lamps, c.1927.

Supplemental illustration (11 September 2018):  Paracelsus, 1935. Franz Görtitz, Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu, Romania. The painting shows the famous alchemist and physician Paracelsus holding a retort in his hands and standing in front of a furnace on which is placed a glass balloon  http://hekint.org/paracelsus-physician-and-alchemist-2/

The Paracelsans (10 September 2018):
Aureolus Philipp Theophra Paracels, courtesy of ‘Images from the History of Medicine’, U.S. National Library of Medicine (NML). Portrait no. 5197.15, Record UI: 101433870, Image ID:186083
http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/luna/servlet/detail/NLMNLM~1~1~101433870~186083:Aureolus-Philipp-Theophra-Paracels?sort=Title%2CSubject_MeSH_Term%2CCreator_Person%2CCreator_Organization&qvq=w4s:/what/Paracelsus,%201493-1541;sort:Title%2CSubject_MeSH_Term%2CCreator_Person%2CCreator_Organization;lc:NLMNLM~1~1&mi=0&trs=25

Supplemental illustration (8 September 2018): Manganese Amberina Footed Compote Bowl Candy Dish http://www.ebay.com/itm/Viking-Manganese-Amberina-Footed-Compote-Bowl-Candy-Dish-/171995205645?hash=item280bb6900d

Neri's Other Rubino (7 September 2018): Photo by Eric Hunt - Rhodochrosite, from the Sweet Home Mine, Colorado, private collection. Courtesy of Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodochrosite#mediaviewer/File:The_Searchlight_Rhodochrosite_Crystal.jpg

Supplemental illustration  (6 September 2018): Titian used glazes of red lake to create the vivid crimson of the robes in "The Vendramin Family Venerating a Relic of the True Cross", completed 1550-60 (detail). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_pigment#/media/File:Titian_-_The_Vendramin_Family_Venerating_a_Relic_of_the_True_Cross_(detail)_-_WGA22811.jpg

Lake of Flowers (5 September 2018):
The Miracle of the immobility of Santa Lucia, 1596/7, by Leandro Bassano (1557–1622).
S Giorgio Maggiore Venice, 1st Altar from the entrance left. Photo credit: Basilica S Giorgio Maggiore Edizione della Basilica 2000 P.26, courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bassano,Leandro_Martyr_S_Lucia.jpg

Suplemental illustration  (4 September 2018): Galileo Galilei, objective lens, Padua, late 1609
Glass, 58 mm, Later mounted in a commemorative frame (1677) , Museo Galileo, Florence, inv.2429 http://www.astronomy2009.org/resources/multimedia/images/detail/galileo_03/

The Glassblower and the Astronomer (3 September 2018):
Justus Sustermans (1597-1681), portrait of Galileo Galilei, 1636 (detail). National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Justus_Sustermans_-_Portrait_of_Galileo_Galilei,_1636.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (1 September 2018): Glass mosaic ceiling of San Giovanni Baptistery, florence Italy. Image courtesy of  http://alfa-img.com/show/florence-baptistery-mosaics.html

August 2018
Baptism of an Alchemist  (30 August 2018): 1) Giacomo Brogi (1822-1881), "Florence - Church of San Giovani, the Baptistry". Catalogue # 3022. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brogi,_Giacomo_(1822-1881)_-_n._3022_-_Firenze_-_Chiesa_di_San_Giovanni_o_Battistero.jpg

2)  Glass mosaic ceiling of San Giovanni Baptistery, florence Italy. Image courtesy of  http://alfa-img.com/show/florence-baptistery-mosaics.html

Supplemental illustration: (30 August 2018): Rock Crystal Ewer, 1000-1050 V&A Museum no. 7904-1862 Place - Egypt Dimensions - Height 19.5 cm Diameter 9 cm (of base) Height 14.3 cm (of handle) Width 2.7 cm (of handle) Width 5.2 cm (of mouth, maximum) Thickness 5 mm (of handle) Thickness 1.7 mm (of ground body) Thickness 2 mm (of body with relief decoration, approx.) Source: http://images.vam.ac.uk/indexplus/page/Home.html via Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatimid_art#/media/File:Rock_crystal_ewer.jpg

Solid Water (29 August 2018): Cup with Gilded Manikin Handles, around 1550. Rock crystal, gold ornaments, 19 x 25 cm. Museo degli Argenti, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. http://www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

Supplemental illustration:  (28 August 2018): H K Mulford advertising card showing vaccine was made in an adjacent facility to the glassworks. #WomenInSTEM #glass

Anna J. Agnew, Champion GlassBlower (27 August 2018): “Girl Champion Glassblower” Chicago Tribune: Chicago, Illinois, 9 March 1902, p. 43.

Supplemental illustration:  (25 August 2018): Title page of Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Venice 1564), courtesy of Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_Librorum_Prohibitorum

Neri and The Inquisition  (24 August 2018):
Inquisition coat of arms, 1573. “EXURGE DOMINE ET JUDICA CAUSAM TUAM. PSALM. 73” [Rise Up, O Lord, and Judge Thine Own Cause!]. Enciclopedia Española. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Escudo_inquisicion.gif

Supplemental illustration: (23 August 2018): Giambologna's horse models were created for the equestrian statue of Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, which was finished in 1594. http://store.metmuseum.org/sculpture/giambologna-medici-walking-horse-sculpture/invt/06060503

Descendants of a Glassmaker (22 August 2018):
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio); Christ Shown to the People (Ecce Homo), c.1570–76; oil on canvas; 43 x 37 5/16 in. (109.2 x 94.8 cm); Saint Louis Art Museum, Museum Purchase 10:1936. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Titian_-_Christ_Shown_to_the_People_(Ecce_Homo).jpg

Supplemental illustration: (21 August 2018): Gilded bronze mount with white marble and black glass eye. Courtesy of The Atkinson Museum, Southport, UK. @AtkinsonThe

Black is Beautiful (20 August 2018):
Black glass cameo vase, c. 1900, Thomas Webb. http://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/20750888_thomas-webb-black-cameo-glass-vase-c-1900

Supplemental illustration:  (18 August 2018): From the folk ballad Captain Ward and the Rainbow, or Ward the Pirate, (Child ballad 287).   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Ward_and_the_Rainbow

Pirates! (17 August 2018):
Sea fight with Barbary corsairs, c. 1581, Lorenzo Castro. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_Castro,_Lorenzo_-_A_Sea_Fight_with_Barbary_Corsairs_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (16 August  2018): Bernardino Poccetti, 1610.  Strage degli innocenti (dettaglio), spedale degli Innocenti, firenze. Image courtesy https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/Bernardino_poccetti%2C_strage_degli_innocenti_%28dettaglio%29%2C_spedale_degli_Innocenti%2C_firenze%2C_1610.jpg

A Gift for the Innocent (15 August  2018):
One of the distinctive roundels designed by Andrea della Robbia for the facade of the Ospedale degli Innocenti. Andrea della Robbia, Florence. Photo: Kaushal Groningen, Netherlands 2007 http://kaushalparikh.aminus3.com/image/2007-07-24.html

Supplemental illustration: (14 August 2018): Aquamanile, attributed to Roger von Helmarshausen, which may be the pseudonym of Theophilus Presbyter (fl. ca. 1070-1125). He started his career as a goldsmith in the Meuse valley, Cologne.

The Purse of Envy (13 August 2018)
Antonio Neri, "The Mineral Gold" Tesoro del Mondo,  (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600), f. 5r.

Supplemental illustration: (11 Aug 2018):: Title page of Antonio Neri’s L’Arte Vetraria, 1612. Image courtesy of Google Books http://books.google.com/books?id=XcnYJuJpMbEC

Antonio Neri? 10 Aug 2018):
Neri Medallion, Specola, Florence (manipulated to remove parallax distortion, and correct color) Original courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Specola,_medaglione_di_antonio_neri.JPG

Supplemental illustration: (9 Aug. 2018): - One of the isolation cells in the Bargello Prison (Florence, Gabinetto Fotografico) Courtesy of http://www.edwardgoldberg.net/p/story-begins.html

The Duke's Mouthwash (8 Aug. 2018):
Ferdinando de’ Medici (1549-1609), Scipione Pulzone (1544 - 1598), Private collection. http://www.artfact.com/auction-lot/scipione-pulzone,-portrait-of-ferdinando-de-medi-1116-c-d137af3e89

The Blue Tower (6,7 Aug  2018):
Fig 1:De Blauwe Toren 1865, Jozef Linnig, Museum Plantin-Moretus / Prentenkabinet,  nr. 3359/18 28/66
(photo by Bart Huysmans) http://www.collectieantwerpen.be/component/option,com_memorix/task,result/searchplugin,categorie/Itemid,2/Categorie,tekening/cp,41/lang,fr/pp,40/mrxpopup,1/CollectionID,1/PhotoID,FAM001005136/RecordID,974067/ResultRecord,405/resultplugin,detail/do,5/

Fig 2: Antwerpen, het Arsenaal, 1601-1653
Circle of Jan Wildens, Pen and brown ink, brown wash on paper. RKD Netherlands Institute for Art History
Illustration number 0000053843. https://rkd.nl/explore/images/27381

Fig 3: Blauwe Toren, Edmond Fierlants
Antwerpen, Belgium, 1860 Photograph, Courtesy of Erfgoedbibliotheek Hendrik Conscience
http://www.sepiatown.com/812664/Blauwe-Toren-by-Fierlants-Antwerpen-Belgium


Supplemental illustration: (4 August 2018): Salsola kali plant, Photo courtesy Zo života pred tabuľou …[From life in front of a blackboard ...] blog, (Martina)  https://martinaucitelka.wordpress.com/2015/08/20/42-slanobyl-draslomilna-salsola-kali/

Lixiviation (3 Aug 2018):
Salsola Kali plant used in Mediterranean glassmaking. Chenopodiaceae - Salsola kali. From: Flora batava by Jan Kops and others. Amsterdam, J.C. Sepp, 1807, volume 2 (plate 133). Hand-coloured engraving (sheet 225 x 278 mm).

Top Physician (1,2  Aug 2018):
Frontispiece from Ricettario Fiorentino 1597 ed, by Neri di Jacopo Neri, Giovan Battista Benadù, Francesco Rosselli and Giovanni Galletti. Courtesy of Wellcome Trust. http://wellcomeimages.org/indexplus/result.html?*sform=wellcome-images&_IXACTION_=query&%24%3Dtoday=&_IXFIRST_=1&%3Did_ref=M0011854&_IXSPFX_=templates/t&_IXFPFX_=templates/t&_IXMAXHITS_=1

Antonio Neri's family arms, from his childhood residence in Florence. Ceiling panel of entrance vestibule, 27 Borgo Pinti, Florence. Neri family coat of arms. Photo by Paul Engle, 2011.

July 2018
A Band of Alchemists: (30,31 July 2018):
The Alchemist 1558, Pieter Brugle the Elder. British Museum, London, http://www.wikiart.org/en/pieter-bruegel-the-elder/the-alchemist

Supplemental illustration: (28 July 2018): Opal glass beaker, c. 1680, Czech Republic. Molded with sea gods at play. Traces of arsenic in the glass make it appear to change color like a precious opal. Glassmaking was allied to alchemy at baroque courts. This glass was made on the estate of Count Buquoy in Bohemia. courtesy of the British Museum http://wb.britishmuseum.org/MCN138#1489945001

Deadly Fumes (27 July2018):  Nikolaus Alexander  Mair von Landshut, 1605. (active ca. 1485, d 1520). From a series of six engravings of memento mori. Courtesy of The Trustees of the British Museum, Department: Prints & Drawings, Registration number: 1893,1020.4

Supplemental illustration: (26 July 2018): Spun Glass ship 20 cent. attribution unknown -- Please contact me of you know artist or photographer.

Encomiums to a Female Glassblower (25 July 2018): Female fancy glass blower at the oil lamp. attribution unknown. Courtesy http://www.untamedrose.com/content/about-art

Supplemental illustration: (24 July 2018): Ancient glass bottle Sidon, (c.150-300 CE) Louvre, Paris Musée du Louvre, Atlas database: entry 4565. Photo Marie-Lan Nguyen (2006), courtesy Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bottle_ivy_Louvre_MND505.jpg

The Discovery of Glass (23 July 2018): "The Discovery of Glass" Giovan Maria Butteri, from The Studiolo of Francesco de' Medici.c.1572  (no. 27 in below link). http://museicivicifiorentini.comune.fi.it/en/palazzovecchio/visitamuseo/studiolo_francesco_i.htm

Supplemental illustration: (21 July 2018): The alchemist facilitates the growth of the metallic seed towards its two fruits or perfections—silver and gold. Emblem twelve from Michael Maier's Symbola Aureae Mensae, Frankfurt, 1617. http://www.aaroncheak.com/on-hermeticism/

Alchemy of Plants (20 July. 2018):
Antonio Neri, "Arts Preparatio frugu vel Piantar." in Tesoro del Mondo, f. 9r.Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration: (19 July 2018): Grand Ducal Workshops, Panel with Vase of Flowers, early 1600s; pietre dure mosaic on black marble ground. Florence, Museo dell’ Opificio delle Pietre Dure. courtesy of Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pannello_con_vaso_di_fiori_dall%27opificio_delle_pietre_dure,_1600-50_ca.,_02.JPG

Renissance Lapidaries (18 July 2018):
Antonio Neri, Tesoro del Mondo, 1598-1600, f. 7v, "Ars Preparatio Lapidum"(detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration (17 July 2018): Dutch kitchen scene, Joachim Beuckelaer The Four Elements Allegory  https://www.pinterest.com/pin/490892428108875425/

Alchemy in the Kitchen (16 July 2018):
Antonio Neri, 1598-1600, Tesoro del Mondo, "Ars Preparatio Animalium”, MS Ferguson 67, f. 10r (detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration: (14 July 2018): The Small Limekiln (Landscape with Morra Players) by Pieter van Laer (1599–after 1641) - Web Gallery of Art. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboccianti#/media/File:Pieter_van_Laer_-_Landscape_with_Morra_Players_-_WGA12369.jpg

Lime (13 July 2018)
Vintage 1920's Water Glass Label. Photo credit: HelenLaRuse
https://www.etsy.com/listing/54253677/vintage-1920s-water-glass-label-egg

Supplemental illustration: (12 July 2018): Sulfur crystal, from Agrigento, Sicily, Italy Photo by Eric Hunt 2006, courtesy of Wikimedia foundation https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Large_Sulfur_Crystal.jpg

Sulfur (11 July 2018):
Alchemical Symbol for Sulfur, created 2014 by Paul Engle in Photoshop. This image is in the public domain and may be used freely without attribution.

Supplemental illustration: (10 July 2018): The alchemist (Adriaen Van Ostade) http://www.salvatorefiorillo.it/dailylife.html

The Dregs (9 July 2018):
"The struggle of fixed and volatile" allegorical illustration from Splendor solis [detail] 1582. British Library, London, (Harley MS 3469). Courtesy of http://bordel.haghn.com/Art/Illustration/Splendor%20Solis/

Supplemental illustration: (7 July 2018): Salsola Kali plant used in Mediterranean glassmaking. Chenopodiaceae - Salsola kali. From: Flora batava by Jan Kops and others. Amsterdam, J.C. Sepp, 1807, volume 2 (plate 133). Hand-coloured engraving (sheet 225 x 278 mm).

Glass Salt (6 July 2018):
Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert eds., L'Encyclopédie, Vol. 10 (1772), “Wood Glass Making,” Raking Out Baked Frit (Verrerie – Verrerie en bois ou petite verrerie à pivette) fig. 15.

Supplemental illustration (5 July 2018): Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) , North American printer, publisher, writer, scientist, inventor and statesman 79 years old. Courtesy Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin#/media/File:BenFranklinDuplessis.jpg

Franklin and Glass (4 July 2018): Portrait of Benjamin Franklin, lampworked glass murrina,
2016, by Stephen Boehme, Riverton, Utah. https://www.etsy.com/people/BoehmePottery

Supplemental illustration: (3 July. 2018): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Art and Science (2 July 2018): Jacopo Ligozzi,1518,  fanciful glass vessels, ink and watercolor on paper. Galleria degli Uffizi. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-12537.html


June 2018
Supplemental illustration: (30 July 2018): Potash glass, 1619, engraved by Anna Roemers Visscher with a poem dedicated to the (later) father of astronomer and physicist Christiaan Huygens.  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roemer_met_een_gedicht_op_Constantijn_Huygens,_anoniem,_Anna_Roemers_Visscher,_1619_-_Rijksmuseum_-_BK-1983-15.jpg

Tartar Salt (29 June 2018): Potassium bitartrate crystals. Photo Courtesy of Vintner’s Cellar Waterloo http://www.vintnerscellarwaterloo.com/article/29/wine_diamonds_or_crystals_in_a_bottle.html

Supplemental illustration: (28 June 2018): Recovering and concentrating Vitriol from a mining operation in the 16th century, from Agricola, De Re Metalica (1580) http://www.chokier.com/IMAGES/ROCHER/Agricola-De_re_metallica-Couperose.jpg

Vitriol of Venus (27 June 2018): Copper Sulfate (vitriol of copper), courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Copper_sulfate.jpg Photo by: ‘Stephanb’ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Stephanb

Supplemental illustration: (26 June 2018): Saturn, ruler of the signs of Aquarius and Capricorn, miniature attributed to Cristoforo de Predis (1440-before 1486) from the astrological book De Sphaera, lat manuscript 209, folio 5, verse, parchment, ca 1470. Detail. Italy, 15th century. http://symboldictionary.net/library/graphics/symbols/glossarysaturnus.jpg

Sulfur of Saturn (25 June 2018): Peter Paul Rubens c. 1630,  “Abundance (Abundantia).” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abundantia

Supplementa illustration: (23 June 2018):
Entrance bridge to the old  Pauley and Co. glass factory as it stands today. Photo (c) courtesy of Big Bead Little Bead Blog. http://big-bead-little-bead.blogspot.com/2011/04/history-venetian-glass-part-3-of-3.html

Alberico Barbini (22 June 2018) - In Memory of Mario Santini.
A section from a larger view of Venice with the island of Murano in the distance, circa 1600 attributed to Danckerts in the style of the famous woodcut print by Jacopo de’ Barbari circa 1500. http://drawingdetail.tumblr.com/post/21644545773/a-section-from-a-larger-view-of-venice-with-the

Supplemental illustration: (21 June 2018): A grouping of ancient counterfeit coins, courtesy of Coinweek, photo credit: Mike Markowitz  http://www.coinweek.com/featured-news/bad-money-ancient-counterfeiters-and-their-coins/

Reports from Parnassus (20 June 2018):
The Parnassus is a fresco painting by Raphael in the Raphael Rooms ("Stanze di Raffaello"), in the Palace of the Vatican in Rome, painted at the commission of Pope Julius II in 1511. [detail] courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Parnassus#mediaviewer/File:Rafael_-_El_Parnaso_(Estancia_del_Sello,_Roma,_1511).jpg

Supplemental illustration: (18 June 2018): Spherical bezoar stones, one from unknown animal, 1551-1750 the other (right) from a camel. Photo Photo number: L0058457, Wellcome Trust Images, courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spherical_bezoar_stone_from_unknown_animal,_1551-1750_Wellcome_L0058457.jpg

Filippo Sassetti (17 June 2018):
Goa, India 1509. “Goa fortissima India urbs in Christianorum potestatem anno salutis 1509 deuenit.” [detail] From Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum I, p. 54. First Latin edition of was published in 1572. (After an unidentified Portuguese manuscript).

Supplemental illustration: (16 June 2018): 
Renaissance instruction in preparation of chemicals. From Annibal Barlet, Le Vray et methodique cours de Chymie (Paris, 1653) Image courtesy of U.S. National Library of Medicine http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/paracelsus/universities.html

Alchemy School (15 June 2018)
Frontispiece woodcut from Zadith ben Hamuel De Chemia Senioris, 1566. See http://www.levity.com/alchemy/amclglr5.html

Supplemental illustration (14 June 2018): Hematite Quartz from Orange River, Namibia. Hematite is a mineral form of iron oxide, here geologically intermixed in otherwise colorless quartz cristal, courtesy of https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hematite-Quartz-ckorqtz-34d.jpg

Crocus Martis (13 June 2018):
From Medicinisch-Chymisch- und Alchemistisches Oraculum, Ulm, 1755. Courtesy of The Alchemy Website, http://www.levity.com/alchemy/alchemical_symbols06.html

Supplemental illustration: (12 June. 2018): Don Giovanni di Cosimo I de’ Medici, courtesy of Wikimedia commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Don_giovanni_de_medici.jpg

Don Giovanni in Flanders (11 June 2018):
Spanish attack on a Flemish village, Attr:  Pieter Snayers. Courtesy of http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Peter_Snayers_-_Spanischer_%C3%9Cberfall_auf_ein_fl%C3%A4misches_Dorf.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (9 June 2018): Roman blown-glass cinerary urn, dated between 1st and 3rd centuries AD. Height: 31 cm. Base diameter: 10 cm. Rim's diameter: 15.5 cm. Lid's height: 6 cm. Location: National Archaeological Museum of Spain (gift of Alfonso de Borbón y Borbón, 1990). Photo by Luis García (Zaqarbal), 3 December 2008. Courtesy of Wikimedia Foundation  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Urna_cineraria_romana_de_vidrio_(M.A.N._Inv.1990-69-150)_01.jpg

Decolorization of Glass (8 June 2018):
Image of two colored glass discs in green and magenta. Paul Engle, 2013, Photoshop.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (7 June 2018): Vannoccio Biringuccio as depicted in the Specola Museum in Florence. Photo by I, Sailko 2009.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vannoccio_Biringuccio#/media/File:Specola,_medaglione_di_vannoccio_biringucci.JPG

The Art of Fire (6 June 2018):
Antonio Neri, MS Fergusin 67, 1598-1600, ink and water color. Antonio Neri, Tesoro del Mondo (Treasure of the World), Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979.

Supplemental illustration (5 June 2018):  Bronze statue of an Owl by the Flemish artist Giambologna (1529-1608) - Florence:Bargello Museum (Italy) http://wiki.cultured.com/people/Giambologna/

The Neighbors (4 June 2018):
"Portrait of Giamologna"by Hendrick Goltzius, Teylers Museum, courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Goltzius-Bologna.png

Supplemental illustration (2 June 2018): Famous mirror room of the Golestan Palace, the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, is located in Arq Square in Tehran.  http://historicaliran.blogspot.com/2011/03/golestan-palace.html

Adam Olearius (1 June 2018):
Adam Olearius (1599-1671), 18th century engr, Attr. unknown, source: http://www.aschersleben-tourismus.de/cms/persoenlichkeiten/adam-olearius/  (Probably a copy of: 1669 oil on canvas portrait by Juriaen Ovens (1623-1678) ) see: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adam-Olearius.jpg .

May 2018
Supplemental illustration (31 May 2018): Glass bagpipe of Glenfiddich Piping Trophy, courtesy rebecca Lomnicky http://www.rebeccalomnicky.com/Photos7.htm

Glass Blowers (30 May 2018):
Berkshire Glass Works cane from 1878. These were novelty items made by glass workers in off hours.  It’s filled with the pure quartzite sand they were so proud of. It was 99.98% pure, the purest in the world. – Charles Flint http://www.peachridgeglass.com/2012/06/glass-cane-whimsies/

A Matter of Plagiarism (28,29 May 2018):
Francesco Lana Terzi (1631-1687), Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons (Italy). http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lanadeterzi.jpg

Title page of Lana Terzi's Prodromo, Courtesy of Internet Archives. https://ia700808.us.archive.org/zipview.php?zip=/4/items/olcovers598/olcovers598-L.zip&file=5980348-L.jpg

Supplemental illustration (26 May 2018): Turquoise glass goblet, Venetian, c1490, 19cm tall. British Museum collection. http://britishmuseum.tumblr.com/post/121113973422/turquoise-glass-goblet

Turquoise Glass (25 May 2018):
Turquoise glass stamp of calif Mustadi 1170-1180. Photo by PHGCOM, 2009, at British Museum. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Turquoise_glass_stamp_of_calif_Mustadi_1170_1180.jpg

The Cardinal's Ceiling (23, 24 May 2018)
Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, f.xxviii-v. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Michelangelo Caravaggio, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto, c. 1597. Casino Ludovisi. Courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter,_Neptune_and_Pluto

Supplemental illustration (22 May 2018): Domenico Ghirlandaio, tempera on wood 1483. Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints, from San Giusto Alle Mura, Florence. Now Galleria degli Uffizi, courtesy Wikimedia commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Domenico_Ghirlandaio_Madonna_and_Child_enthroned_with_Saint_c_1483.jpg

San Giusto Alle Mura (21 May 2018):
Window of  Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral, Florence, Italy. Window detail of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence. Photo by Georges Jansoone, courtesy  of Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Stained_glass_windows_in_Santa_Maria_del_Fiore_(Florence)#mediaviewer/File:Santa_Maria_del_Fiore_colour_glass_(1623723568).jpg

True Colors (18, 19 May 2018)
The European Roller [Pica Marina] Photo: Mehmet Goren, Pica Marina. Courtesy of Mehmet Goren. http://www.trakus.org/kods_bird/uye/?fsx=2fsdl15@d&idx=4193#.Uij5udKsjTo

Pica marina, Ulisse Aldrovandi, "Le tavole acquerellate di Ulisse Aldrovandi Tavole vol. 002 Animali ..." Manoscritto, Parnassus Scientiarum, Catalogue of the Waller Collection of History of Science and Medicine, Edited by Marco Beretta and Andrea Scotti Interface editor Daniele Nuzzo, Courtesy  of the University of Bologna. http://www.filosofia.unibo.it/aldrovandi/pinakesweb/compdetail.asp?compid=3521

Supplemental illustration: (17 May 2018): The Medici Glass Workshop (detail) in the Galleria dei Lavori of the Uffizi. Giovanni Maria Butteri (Italian, 1540–about 1606), 1570. Palazzo Vecchio, Studiolo of Francesco I.

Galleria Lavori (16 May 2018): Giovanni Stradano, alias Jan van der Straet (1523-1605), "Alchemy Studio" (1570). Palazzo Vecchio (Studiolo), Florence. Courtesy of Uffizi/Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (15 May 2018):Piazza Santa Trìnita, Florence, the column of justice,  a massive granite column from the east section of the Baths of Caracalla in Rome. It was the gift of Pope Pius IV in 1560 for Cosimo I, the first Grand Duke of Florence. In 1581 the Justice statue by Tadda was added to the top of the column http://www.florence-on-line.com/piazzas/piazza-santa-trinita.html

Weights and Measures (14 May 2018):
"The Proclamation regarding Weights and Measures A.D. 1556" by Ford Madox Brown, a mural at Manchester Town Hall. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BrownManchesterMuralProclamation.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (12 May 2018): Dutch Factory at Surat as seen in April 1629. Plagerized / Reproduced by J.A. von Mandelso and labelled 'English factory' after an original etching by Pieter van den Broecke (1585-1640), a Dutch cloth merchant in the service of the Dutch East India Company in Korte Historiael ende Journaelsche Aenteyckeninghe published in Amsterdam, 1634. The only difference between the Mandelso & Broecke images is the distribution of people passing in front of the building. Image credit: British Library: 10095.aaa.49, p. 121 http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/parsi/surat2.htm

Thévenot in India (11 May 2018): Antique gold finger Ring Arsi Rajasthan India http://www.ebay.com/itm/Rare-Vintage-antique-20-carat-Gold-finger-Ring-Arsi-Rajasthan-India-/380447781358

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (10 May 2018): Glass jugs and rosewater sprinkler come from Shiraz (18th century), courtesty of Glassware and Ceramic Museum, Tehran Iran http://www.islamichistoryandtravel.com/glassware_and_ceramic_museum_tehran_photos.html

Thévenot Continues East (9 May 2018):Stained glass windows of the Nasir al-Mulk 'Pink Mosque', Shiraz, Iran. Photo by Domiri Mohammad Reza Ganji. http://iranbusinessportal.com/stunning-photos-by-an-iranian-physicis/

Supplemental illustration (8 May 2018): The Hedwig beaker at the British Museum, may have originated in c17th Persia. Now thought to originate in Sicily  in the 10th to 12th century. see http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=217275&partId=1  also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedwig_glass

Travels To The East (7 May 2018):
Jean de Thévenot, from "Relation d'un voyage fait au Levant" Frontispiece, Thévenot, Jean de. Relation d’un voyage fait au Levant. Paris: L. Billaine, 1665 Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_de_Th%C3%A9venot_(1664).jpg

Supplemental illustration (5 May 2018): Antonio Neri, "L'Arte Vetraria…" (Firenze: Giunti, 1612), p. i. (title page) https://books.google.com/books?id=XcnYJuJpMbEC

A Deeper Accomplishment   (4 May 2018):  
From Antonio Neri, "Treasure of the World" MS Ferguson 67, f. 22r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections.

Supplemental illustration (3 May 2018):  Federico Barocci (1535–1612), Aeneas' Flight from Troy, 1598. Galleria Borghese  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aeneas%27_Flight_from_Troy_by_Federico_Barocci.jpg

We Were Trojans (2 May 2018):
Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo or 'Giandomenico Tiepolo' (1727-1804), "Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy", Wikimedia foundation, (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Giovanni_Domenico_Tipeolo,_Procession_of_the_Trojan_Horse_in_Troy._1773..jpg)

Supplemental  illustration: (25 May 2017): http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Orto_botanico_di_Pisa_-_old_instiitute.JPG  Orto botanico di Pisa - old institute building. Pisa, Italy. Photo by "Daderot" 2006, GDFL.

April 2018
Neri in Pisa (30 April 2018):
Grotesque style Euer by Niccolo Sisti, Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche in Faenza. Photo 2009, Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, the Wikimedia OTRS system, ticket #2009032510047417. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pisa_Nicol%C3%B2_Sisti_1590c_21511.JPG

Final Restingplace ?: (27 April 2018):
Neri Chapel, Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi, Borgo Pinti, 58, Florence, Italy. Photo by Paul Engle 2011

The Vision of St Bernard (c. 1598), by Pietro Perugino (1448–1523). Current location: The Pinakothek Museums in the Kunstareal Munich. Image courtesy of Wikipedia http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Perugino,_apparizione_della_vergine_a_san_bernardo,_monaco.jpg


Supplemental Twitter illustration: (26 April 2018): Philip William, Prince of Orange, Emanuel van Meteren (1535-1612), Simeon Ruytinck (-1621). Engraver: H. Jacopsen. Photography: D-vorm, Bert en Lilian Mellink. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emanuel_van_Meteren_Historie_ppn_051504510_MG_8780_philips_guillaume.tif

Dear Friends (25 April 2018):
The library of the University of Leiden (1610), where Christoph Plantin worked from 1583 to 1585. Picture courtesy of Frédéric Barbier http://histoire-du-livre.blogspot.com/2012_04_01_archive.html (28 Avril 2012). University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in ''Stedeboeck der Nederlanden'', Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (24 April 2018): Georges de La Tour’s The Fortune Teller c.1630. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York http://www.abcgallery.com/L/latour/latour33.html

Alchemist's Assistant (23 April 2018):
Spine of Agnolo della Casa, BNCF MS. Palatino 867 [756 - 21, 2.] Serie Targioni, II, v. 3. Courtesy of Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze.

Supplemental illustration (21 April 2018): Paste gem and gold finger ring, 1600s, courtesy of The Museum of London, via https://www.pinterest.com/pin/76772368617930715/

Artificial Gems (20 April 2018):
Pendant, paste gems, Portugal ca. 1750. V&A acquisition nr.M.68-1962 http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O113043/pendant-unknown/

Supplemental illustration: (19 April 2018): Potassium bitartrate crystals -commonly known as wine diamonds.  Courtesy of the Austrian Centre for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis F E L M I - Z F E: Greetings from kitchen. July 29, 2015 · https://www.facebook.com/1607499066168368/photos/a.1613920892192852.1073741831.1607499066168368/1629293257322282/?type=3&theater

Scraping the Barrel (18 April 2018):
4th century BCE philosopher Diogenes, “Alexander and Diogenes” 1792 painting by Gaetano Gandolfi (1792). Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gaetano_Gandolfi_-_Alexander_and_Diogenes.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (17 April 2018): Ticino paver stones in Pavia, Italy Photo courtesy of Kaanz photography,  www.facebook.com/kaanzphotography

Pebbles from Pavia (16 April 2018):
William Pars (1742‑1782) “A Bridge on the River Ticino, near Polleggio” c.1770. Graphite and watercolor on paper Image courtesy  of the Tate Museum, London.  http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pars-a-bridge-on-the-river-ticino-near-polleggio-t08276

Supplemental Twitter illustration (14 April 2018): Oculus above the portal of the White Penitents Chapel in Montpellier, France. Stained glass window featuring the Holy Spirit, as a dove, symbol of the Confraternity and motto: "Spiritus Sanctus ubi vult spirat". [The Holy Spirit blows where it wishes] 17th century. Photo courtesy Wikimedia. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sainte-Foy,_chapelle_des_P%C3%A9nitents_blancs_de_Montpellier._Oculus_du_Saint-Esprit_symbole_de_la_Confr%C3%A9rie.jpg

Montpellier (13 April 2018):
Engraved view of Montpellier, France, in the seventeenth century. German, 1660. Attribution unknown, http://www.museeprotestant.org/en/notice/the-last-religious-wars/

Supplemental illustration: (12 April 2018): Cardinal de Richelieu, Philippe de Champaigne 1641. courtesy of wikimedia  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardinal_Richelieu#/media/File:Cardinal_de_Richelieu_mg_0053.jpg

Vitrum Flexile (11 April 2018: Roman Emperor Tiberius - Glass paste cameo c 20ACE by "Herophilos, Son of Dioskurides. Courtesy https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276865127678/

Supplemental illustration (10 January 2018): A Masonic flask made at the Kene, New Hampshire, glassworks where Henry schoolcraft was superindentant following his time at Lake Dunmore, in Vermont.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flask_with_Masonic_decoration,_Keene-Marlboro-Street_Glass_Works,_New_Hampshire,_c._1800-1825,_mold-blown_turquoise_glass_-_Albany_Institute_of_History_and_Art_-_DSC08155.JPG

"Glass" A Poem by Henry Schoolcraft (9 April 2018): Portrait of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, frontispiece from Notes on the Iroquois: Or, Contributions to American History, Antiquities, and General Ethnology, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. (Albany: E. H. Pease & Company, 1847), p. ii.

Supplemental illustration (7 April 2018): Jacopo Ligozzi,1518,  fanciful glass vessels, ink and watercolor on paper. Galleria degli Uffizi. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-12537.html

Cross Pollination (6 April 2018):
The art of stonework, from MS Ferguson 67, f. 7r, (1598-1600)
Antonio Neri. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration: (5 April 2018): Stained glass window of Marc Chagall's work at the U.N. Image courtesy of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:UN_Glass.jpg

Zaffer: (4 April 2018) Antique Apothecary Pharmacy Bottles Cobalt Blue https://www.pinterest.com/pin/258605203572745183/

Supplemental illustration (3 April 2018):  Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, vol. 5 (plates), figure 6, Diderot & d’Alembert. Paris, Briasson [etc.] 1751–65.

Sonnet for a Barber (2April 2018):
Bust portrait of Luigi [Lodovico?] Domenechi facing right set within an elaborate cartouche Engraving. Italian, 'Medaglia del [Antonio Francesco]Doni' print made by: Enea Vico, 1550-1564.  Courtesy of  the British Museum, inventory #1867,1012.650. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details/collection_image_gallery.aspx?assetId=66638&objectId=1501580&partId=1

March 2018
Supplemental illustration (31 March 2018): Glass items found by archaeologists in the baptistery at  SS. Giovanni e Reparata in Lucca, Italy. Evidence suggests some may have been originally  purchased from the Pisa shop of Giovanbattista Guerrazzi. http://archeologiamedievale.unisi.it/SitoCNR/Vetro/Produzione/Prod4b2.html

Rise and Fall (30 March 2018):
“Merry Company,” 1623. Gerard van Honthorst (1590–1656),
Courtesy of Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss, Schleißheim, via Wikimedia commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Honthorst,_Gerard_van_-_Merry_Company_-_1623.jpg

Supplemental illustration (29 March 2018): Nef, or navicella. First half of 16th century, possibly by Arminia Vivarini.  Museo del Vetro, Murano, Venice Italy.  http://museovetro.visitmuve.it/it/il-museo/percorsi-e-collezioni/vetro-xv-xvi-xvii-secolo/

Arminia Vivarini (28 March 2017): Nef Ewer, Late 16th century, Murano Italy. Image courtesy of the Milwaukee Art Museum.

Carries the Palm (26,27 March 2018)
Assisi frescoes, entry into Jerusalem. Pietro Lorenzetti, 1320. Assisi, Lower Basilica, San Francesco, southern transept. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Assisi-frescoes-entry-into-jerusalem-pietro_lorenzetti.jpg

Saint Justina of Padua with a palm frond, Bartolo Montagna 1490s, oil on wood. Courtesy of The Metropolital Museum of Art,  Accession Number: 14.40.606. http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/437145

Copper Sulfate (vitriol of copper), courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Copper_sulfate.jpg Photo by: ‘Stephanb’ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Stephanb

Supplemental Twitter illustration (24 March 2018): Pietro Longi, Portrait of the family Sagredo, circa 1752, courtesy of Wikimedia commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pietro_Longhi_053.jpg

Dianora Parenti (23 March 2018): Agnolo di Cosimo 'Bronzino,' "Portrait of Florentine Noblewoman" circa. 1540 Florence, (thought to be a cousin of Eleanor Toledo) Courtesy of  the San Diego Museum of Art. http://www.sdmart.org/

Supplemental illustration (22 March 2018): Calcedony (calcedonio) blown glass beaker, European, 1700-1799, Corning Museum of Glass, bequest of Jerome Strauss acc# 79.3.487

Chalcedony Glass (21 March 2018):
Ribbed vessel, chalcedony glass, seventeenth century, 20 cm. Collection of the  Museo del Monastero di Santa Giulia, Brescia Courtesy of Fondazione Marilena Ferrari. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-1479.html

Supplemental illustration (20 March 2018): Sant'Agata Monastery (Via San Gallo, Florencce) Buonsignori map, 1594 https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiesa_di_Sant%27Agata_(Firenze)

The Sisters of Antonio Neri (19 March 2018): Portrait of the Egerton Sisters, Elizabeth, Vere and Mary Egerton; English School, c. 1601. http://amapx.tumblr.com/post/117259364400/jeannepompadour-portrait-of-the-egerton

Kitchen Alchemy  (16 March 2018):
Antonio Neri, 1598-1600, Tesoro del Mondo, "Ars Preparatio Animalium”, MS Ferguson 67, f. 10r (detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration: (15 March 2018) The Medici Glass Workshop (detail) in the Galleria dei Lavori of the Uffizi. Giovanni Maria Butteri (Italian, 1540–about 1606), 1570. Palazzo Vecchio, Studiolo of Francesco I.

Diligence (14 March 2018): After Pieter Brueghel the Younger, entitled The Alchemist. Circa 1600 (detail) courtesy of Wikipedia  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieter_Brueghel_the_Younger

Caterina Sforza (12-13 March 2018): Portrait of Caterina Sforza, by Lorenzo di Credi (c.1463-1509)
Now in the Museum of Forlì (Pinacoteca Civica di Forlì, Italy)
Photo courtesy of: http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/monalisa/genealogy/073.htm
Via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Caterina_Sforza.jpg

Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (1498) Courtesy of Uffizi Gallery, Florence, via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Botticelli-primavera.jpg (detail - rightmost of the three graces)

Supplemental illustration (10 March 2018): The Beguines' hospital of Malines in Mechelen, Belgium in the 19th century. Source unknown.

The Béguines of Malines (9 March 2018):
A Béguine of Antwerp, from Pierre Hélyot, L'Histoire des ordres monastiques… 1719 (v.8) Courtesy of Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=9DQGAAAAQAAJ

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (8 March 2018):
Main entrance (detail) of Casino di San Marco, Florence, Italy. Macaque monkey over entrance embodies the playful spirit of discovery practiced inside. Photo by  "Sailko" 2007, via Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Casino_di_san_marco,_scimmietta.JPG

Casino di San Marco (7 March 2018):
Courtesy of ARCHIDIS - Fondo disegni tecnici del Comune di Firenze. Direction de Toscana place de Florence. Coupe du casin de S. Marc, prise sur la ligne. Cart. 5 tavola 1. sul retro: classe 1° Casino di S. Marco. n. 3 piante del casino della Livia - cav. Mazzei. Amfce 0533 (cass. 16 ins. A2). (http://opac.comune.firenze.it/).

Supplemental illustration (6 March 2018): Detail of Dragon-Stem Goblet, Venice, Italy, 1630-1670. Courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass 51.3.118.

Sara Vincx (5 March 2018):
Detail from: Roses and an iris in a glass vase, crabs and prawns on a pewter platter, a Facon-de-Venise wineglass, a stoneware ewer, a bunch of grapes. By Alexander Adriaenssen b. 1587, Antwerp, d. 1661, Antwerp

Women in Alchemy ( 2,3 March 2018):
Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 25r, 35r, 37r.

Supplemental illustration (1 March 2018): Antonio Neri, self -portrait, from Treasure of the World. 1598-1600, f.xxvii-v (detail, enlarged and rotated). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

February 2018
Antonio Neri's Birthday (28 February 2018):
Neri Medallion, Specola, Florence (manipulated to remove parallax distortion, and correct color) Original courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Specola,_medaglione_di_antonio_neri.JPG

Washing Molten Glass (26,27 February 2018):
Washing, sorting and carrying cullet, from Denis Diderot 1772. Recueil des planches sur les sciences, les arts libéraux, et les arts mechaniques : avec leur explication, v. 10, plate 16. Paris : Briasson, 1772. Image courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass, featured (fig.3) in “Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Women Working with Glass,” http://www.cmog.org/article/breaking-glass-ceiling-women-working-glass

Supplemental Twitter illustration (24 February 2018): The four elements in alchemy are portrayed in Johann Daniel Mylius’ Philosophia reformata (1622) as representing the four stages of the alchemical opus. From left to right are earth, water, air and fire.

Primordial Matter (23 February 2018)
Mining practices, from Georgius Agricola (Georg Bauer), De Re Metallica 1556, Image courtesy of University of Arizona Mineral Museum. http://www.uamineralmuseum.org/exhibits/demonmonier/rare-book-collection/  (1540 ed is here: http://books.google.com/books?id=PUo8AAAAcAAJ )

Supplemental Twitter illustration (22 February 2018): Woodwork-Furniture: Galleria dei Lavori, Florence After woodcut illustrations by Francesco Del Tuppo (Italian, 1443/44–1501) , published in Naples in 1485, Date: ca. 1606–23, Italian, Florence. Medium: Oak and poplar veneered with various exotic hardwoods, with ebony moldings and plaques of marble, slate (paragon); pietre dure work consisting of colored marbles, rock crystal, and various hardstones. Metropolitam Museum of Art, New York. Accession Number: 1988.19  https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1988.19/

Cross Pollination (21 February 2018):
The art of stonework, from MS Ferguson 67, f. 7r, (1598-1600) Antonio Neri. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration (20 February 2018): Title page from Antonio Neri's 1612 book L'Arte Vetraria [the art of glassmaking] http://www.cmog.org/library/larte-vetraria-distinta-libri-sette-del-rp-antonio-neri-fiorentino

Eyes of a Lynx (18 February 2018)
The seal of the Academia dei Lincei. Courtesy of Accademia dei Lincei, Palazzo Corsini - Via della Lungara, 10, Rome. http://www.lincei.it/

Supplemental illustration: (17 February 2018): American, circa 1909, A Tiffany Studios leaded glass and bronze lamp comprising a "salamander" design on a gilded bronze "bird skeleton" table base. Courtesy Lillian Nassau http://www.lilliannassau.com/catalogue/tiffany-studios-lamps/tiffany-studiossalamander-table-lamp/

Salamander (16 February 2017):
Michael Maier, Atalanta fugiens, hoc est, Emblemata Nova de Secretis Naturae Chymica... (Oppenheim: Johann Theodori de Bry, 1617), emblem 29.

Supplemental illustration: (15 February 2018): Goblet, Brandenburg (Germany), Potsdam probably engraved by Gottfried Spiller about 1690-1700. Image courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass  http://www.cmog.org/article/gold-ruby-glass

Rosichiero Glass (14 February 2018):
Venice Sunset, Artist unknown, courtesy of "free wallpaper" at http://www.artworkslimitededitions.co.uk/desktopwallpaper.php - Please contact me if you know the artist.

Excellent presentation on color by the University of Oslo:
http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/kjemi/KJM3100/v07/undervisningsmateriale/kjm3100_2007_09_colour_b.pdf

Supplemental Twitter illustration (13 February 2018): Fern plant, Blätter des Manns Walfarn, by Alois Auer, Vienna: Imperial Printing Office, 1853. Courtesy of the Wikimedia foundation: Nature print, (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nature_print,_Alois_Auer_.jpg).

Laughing In the Fern (12 February 2018):
Allain Manesson Mallet  1719, "Der Mont. – Lune"

Supplemental illustration (10 February 2018): The young Queen Elizabeth I (here in about 1563) liked to wear bright reds, before she adopted the more sober image of the "Virgin Queen". Her satin gown was probably dyed with kermes. Steven van der Meulen (fl. 1543–1568) - Scanned in the US from Sotheby's Catalogue #L07123,  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red#/media/File:Elizabeth_I_Steven_Van_Der_Meulen.jpg

Dyed In the Grain (9 February 2018)
Dyeing wool cloth, from "Des Proprietez des Choses", Bartholomaeus Anglicus, 1482. British Library Royal MS 15.E.iii, folio 269 Image via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dyeing_British_Library_Royal_MS_15.E.iii,_f._269_1482.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (8 February 2018): - One of the isolation cells in the Bargello Prison (Florence, Gabinetto Fotografico) Courtesy of http://www.edwardgoldberg.net/p/story-begins.html

The Duke's Mouthwash (7 February, 2018):
Ferdinando de’ Medici (1549-1609), Scipione Pulzone (1544 - 1598), Private collection. http://www.artfact.com/auction-lot/scipione-pulzone,-portrait-of-ferdinando-de-medi-1116-c-d137af3e89

Supplemental illustration (6 February 2018): Alchemical images from the Beinecke Library Johan Isaac Hollandus, 15th century Alchemical and Rosicrucian compendium, courtesy Diego de Castro Korgi.  http://rara1avis1.blogspot.com/2011/04/multiplicatio-fermentatio.html

Isaac Hollandus (5 February 2018):
Illustration from: Isaac J. Hollandus, Chymische Schriften, Vienna 1773. Earlier 1666 ed is here (p. 13) http://books.google.com/books?id=XFw6AAAAcAAJ

Supplemental Twitter illustration (3 February 2018): A Masonic flask made at the Kene, New Hampshire, glassworks where Henry schoolcraft was superindentant following his time at Lake Dunmore, in Vermont. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flask_with_Masonic_decoration,_Keene-Marlboro-Street_Glass_Works,_New_Hampshire,_c._1800-1825,_mold-blown_turquoise_glass_-_Albany_Institute_of_History_and_Art_-_DSC08155.JPG

Glass in Early America (2 February 2018): Portrait of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, frontispiece from Notes on the Iroquois: Or, Contributions to American History, Antiquities, and General Ethnology, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. (Albany: E. H. Pease & Company, 1847), p. ii.

January 2018
Bead Symposium Lecture (31 January 2018) Title slide from lecture, background from Neri 1598-1600, Tesoro del Mondo. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Aventurine (30 January 2018):
Classe VI, n. 3458. / Figure 5: Small amphora in aventurine glass with handles in “rigadin” decorated with colorless “morise”, Murano, Salviati doc.http://www.cairn.info/revue-archeosciences-2013-1-page-135.htm (e verre aventurine (« avventurina ») : son histoire, les recettes, les analyses, sa fabrication, by Moretti, Gratuze, Hreglich.

Supplemental illustration (29 January 2018): View of Castel Dell'Oro Naples, "Tavola Strozzi" (1472), attributed toFrancesco Rosselli - San Martino Museum in Naples https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tavola_Strozzi. Detail Photo courtesy of Carl,  https://www.flickr.com/photos/70125105@N06/10506919956

Friar Mauritio (28 January 2018):Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, "Brother Mauritio" detail from, f. 19r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental Twitter illustration (27 January 2018): Plaque: Hercules Overcoming the Centaur Nessus, ca. 1570–80 Annibale Fontana (Italian, Milanese, 1504–1587) Rock crystal in enameled gold frame of later date . https://marinni.dreamwidth.org/642764.html?style=light

Glass or Rock? (26 January 2018):
Rock crystal ewer, Egypt(1000-1050), V&A Museum, #7904-1862, Photo via Wikimedia Commons  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rock_crystal_ewer.jpg

Supplemental illustration (25 January 2018): Covered goblet decorated with the reticello technique. Probably Venice, late 17th–early 18th century. H. 27.7 cm, D. (cover) 9.5 cm. The Corning Museum of Glass (79.3.174, gift of The Ruth Bryan Strauss Memorial Foundation).  http://renvenetian.cmog.org/chapter/18th-century-decline

Reticello (24 FebrJanuary 2018):
Reticello by Aaron Tate http://www.aarontate.com/ , Photo (c) by David Lindes courtesy of David Lindes. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lindes/78440530/.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (23 January 2018):
Carlo Scarpa, “Mezza Filigrana Glass Vase,” c. 1934, Murano, Christie’s Collection   http://venice11.umwblogs.org/scarpas-filigrana-glass/

Filigrana (22 Janruary 2018): Mezza Filigrana footed vase, circa 1950s, by Dino Martens (1894-1970) for Aureliano Toso. http://www.artnet.com/artists/dino-martens/past-auction-results

Flameworked filigrana style miniature vessels by Emilio Santini, Photo courtesy of the artist.

Supplemental illustration (20 January 2018): (See: I. Lazar (2005) 'An Oil Lamp depicting a Roman Glass Furnace - a new find from Slovenia' in Instrumentum 22, Dec. 2005. The lamp itself is in the Pokrajinski Muzej Ptuj, Slovenia.) http://www.theglassmakers.co.uk/archiveromanglassmakers/furnace1.htm

Early Modern Glass Furnace (19 January 2018): From "De re metallica", Agricola (Georg Bauer) 1556.
Georg Agricola, Zwölf Bücher vom Berg- und Hüttenwesen, übers. v. Carl Schiffner, Berlin 1928, S. 502 ff. Scanned by Bibliothek für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte / Köln, http://www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/ courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agricola-3.png

Supplemental illustration: (18 January 2018): Ottavio Leoni Portrait of Francesco Maria del Monte (1578–1630). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ottavio_Leoni_-_Francesco_Maria_del_Monte.jpg

The Duke's Oil (17 Janruary 2018):
Trajan's Column, Rome, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1758), Hind 51iii(of vii). Etching and engraving, Plate 31 from the Vedute di Roma (Views of Rome). Courtesy of R. E Lewis and Daughter http://www.relewis.com/piranesi-trajans-column.html

Supplemental illustration (16 Janruary 2018): Orto Botanico (botanical gardens) at Pisa Attribution of image unknown,  courtesy of http://www.italianbotanicalheritage.com/it/scheda.php?struttura=752

Botanical Gardens (15 January 2018):
Rudolf II as "Vertumnus" by the Milanese painter Giuseppe Arcimboldo. (c. 1590), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arcimboldovertemnus.jpeg

Incalmo (12,13 January 2018): Tapio Wirkkala for Venini: Incalmo Bolle,  http://designgush.com/2011/03/30/tapio-wirkkala-for-venini-incalmo-bolle-copy/


Murano. 'A canne di filigrana ed incalmo' plate, 16th century. D. 28.3 cm. Clear glass, fused clear glass rods, opaque white threads and spirals. http://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/30038985_a-canne-di-filigrana-ed-incalmo-plate-16th-century


http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/08.138.2 From www.metmuseum.org -  Abbasid period (750–1258), 9t–10th century Iraq or Syria. Glass, greenish yellow, blown in two parts, impressed with tongs

Supplemental illustration: (11 January 2018): Smolník – Royal Mining Town, Photo courtesy of  http://en.infoglobe.cz/tips-for-trips/sk-smolnik-royal-mining-town/

A Recipe for Transmutation (10 January 2018): Recovering and concentrating Vitriol from a mining operation in the 16th century, from Agricola, De Re Metalica (1580) http://www.chokier.com/IMAGES/ROCHER/Agricola-De_re_metallica-Couperose.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (9 January 2018):
Entrance bridge to the old  Pauley and Co. glass factory as it stands today. Photo (c) courtesy of Big Bead Little Bead Blog. http://big-bead-little-bead.blogspot.com/2011/04/history-venetian-glass-part-3-of-3.html

Alberico Barbini (8 January 2018) - In Memory of Mario Santini.
A section from a larger view of Venice with the island of Murano in the distance, circa 1600 attributed to Danckerts in the style of the famous woodcut print by Jacopo de’ Barbari circa 1500. http://drawingdetail.tumblr.com/post/21644545773/a-section-from-a-larger-view-of-venice-with-the

Purpurine (5.6 January 2018):
1) Fabergé, St. Petersburg. Cherry Sprig. c.1900. The cherries are made of purpurine, the leaves are nephrite, the stalk, sprouting from its rock-crystal pot is made of gold.  Géza von Hapsburg: Fabergé, Imperial Craftsman and His World, London: Booth-Clibborn, 2000, p.117

2) Red Glass Beads, 1st cent. BCE, Tissamaharama, Sri Lanka. Rösch, Cordelia; Hock, Rainer; Schüssler, Ulrich; Yule, Paul; Hannibal, Anne. “Electron Microprobe Analysis and X-ray Diffraction Methods in Archaeometry: Investigations on Pre-Islamic Beads from the Sultanate of Oman” in: European Journal of Mineralogy, 9 (1997), 763–783. (Specifically, beads found at Tissamaharama, pp. 771,772). http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/propylaeumdok/volltexte/2009/305

3) A small Medusa's head in opaque red glass made sometime in the first century AD Approximately one cm high and as wide, Corning Museum of Glass in NY. http://www.cmog.org/artwork/disk

4) Roman bowl in red opaque glass  sold at Christie's, London, 2010. A Roman opaque red glass patella cup (haematinon) c.1st cent. BCE/CE Sale#5488, lot 47.
http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/ancient-art-antiquities/a-roman-opaque-red-glass-patella-cup-5358311-details.aspx

5) Portrait of Roman mosaicist Michelangelo Barberi, 1809. Italian pencil, sanguine on paper http://www.rusmuseum.ru/eng/collections/drawing/photos

6)  One of a pair of Tazzas, Leopoldo Bonafede,  Imperial Glassworks (Russian, c.1867) purpurine, gilded bronze, colored glass. http://art.thewalters.org/detail/77444/pair-of-tazzas/
Supplemental Twitter illustration: (15 July 2017) Frontispiece from Pierfilippo Covoni, Don Antonio de' Medici Al Casino Di San Marco, Firenze, 1892. Image from personal collection of Paul Engle. There is a public domain copy here: http://books.google.com/books?id=5-sVAAAAYAAJ

Supplemental illustration (4 January 2017): View inside Antonio Neri's family chapel on Borgo Pinti in Florence. A full length painting of Saint Philip Neri is to the left of the door. Photo credit: archives of Fratelli Alinari (founded in Florence in 1852, is the oldest firm in the world working in the field of photography).

Cousin Philip Neri (3 January 2018):
Saint Philip Neri, attr. unknown, prob. after Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (Il Guernico), 1565 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Guercino_San_Filippo_Neri._San_Marino.JPG)Courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FNeri.gif

Supplemental illustration (2 January 2018): Wall painting from the Uffizi Gallery, Stanzino delle Matematiche, in Florence, Italy, showing the Greek mathematician Archimedes' mirror being used to burn Roman military ships. Painted in 1600 Courtesy Wikipedia.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archimedes#/media/File:Archimedes-Mirror_by_Giulio_Parigi.jpg

What Goes Around Comes Around (1 January 2018): Map of Ulm, Germany, Ulm - "Ulma Imperialis in Sueuia urbs, fortissimo aquae et muror ambitu, magnifico templo, et Danubij propiquitate illustris."  Georg Braun & Franz Hogenberg 1570-78. Copper engraving, original color in outline and wash. 107 by 470mm (4¼ by 18½ inches). B&H Vol. I. #31  https://www.bergbook.com/images/21441-01.jpg

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