Picture Credits 2019

May 2019
Supplemental illustration: (18 May 2019): Ancient glass bottle Sidon, (c.150-300 CE) Louvre, Paris Musée du Louvre, Atlas database: entry 4565. Photo Marie-Lan Nguyen (2006), courtesy Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bottle_ivy_Louvre_MND505.jpg

The Discovery of Glass (17 May 2019): "The Discovery of Glass" Giovan Maria Butteri, from The Studiolo of Francesco de' Medici.c.1572  (no. 27 in below link). http://museicivicifiorentini.comune.fi.it/en/palazzovecchio/visitamuseo/studiolo_francesco_i.htm

Supplementa illustration: (16 May 2019):
Entrance bridge to the old  Pauley and Co. glass factory as it stands today. Photo (c) courtesy of Big Bead Little Bead Blog. http://big-bead-little-bead.blogspot.com/2011/04/history-venetian-glass-part-3-of-3.html

Alberico Barbini (15 May 2019) - In Memory of Mario Santini.
A section from a larger view of Venice with the island of Murano in the distance, circa 1600 attributed to Danckerts in the style of the famous woodcut print by Jacopo de’ Barbari circa 1500. http://drawingdetail.tumblr.com/post/21644545773/a-section-from-a-larger-view-of-venice-with-the

Supplemental Twitter illustration (14 May 2019): Blätter des Manns Walfarn, by Alois Auer, Vienna: Imperial Printing Office, 1853. Courtesy of the Wikimedia foundation: Nature print, (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nature_print,_Alois_Auer_.jpg).

Laughing In the Fern (13 May 2019):
Alain Manesson Mallet  1719, "Der Mont. – Lune"

Supplemental illustration: (11 May 2019): The alchemist facilitates the growth of the metallic seed towards its two fruits or perfections—silver and gold. Emblem twelve from Michael Maier's Symbola Aureae Mensae, Frankfurt, 1617. http://www.aaroncheak.com/on-hermeticism/

Alchemy of Plants (10 May 2019): Antonio Neri, "Arts Preparatio frugu vel Piantar." in Tesoro del Mondo, f. 9r.Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration: (09 May 2019): Grand Ducal Workshops, Panel with Vase of Flowers, early 1600s; pietre dure mosaic on black marble ground. Florence, Museo dell’ Opificio delle Pietre Dure. courtesy of Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pannello_con_vaso_di_fiori_dall%27opificio_delle_pietre_dure,_1600-50_ca.,_02.JPG

Early Modern Lapidaries (08 May 2019): Antonio Neri, Tesoro del Mondo, 1598-1600, f. 7v, "Ars Preparatio Lapidum"(detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration: (07 May 2019): Sulfur crystal, from Agrigento, Sicily, Italy Photo by Eric Hunt 2006, courtesy of Wikimedia foundation https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Large_Sulfur_Crystal.jpg

Glass, Fire and Brimstone (06 May 2019):
Alchemical Symbol for Sulfur, created 2014 by Paul Engle in Photoshop. This image is in the public domain and may be used freely without attribution.

Supplemental illustration: (04 May 2019): The alchemist (Adriaen Van Ostade) http://www.salvatorefiorillo.it/dailylife.html

The Dregs (03 May 2019):
"The struggle of fixed and volatile" allegorical illustration from Splendor solis [detail] 1582. British Library, London, (Harley MS 3469). Courtesy of http://bordel.haghn.com/Art/Illustration/Splendor%20Solis/

Supplemental illustration: (02 May 2019): A grouping of ancient counterfeit coins, courtesy of Coinweek, photo credit: Mike Markowitz.

Reports from Parnassus (01 May 2019):
The Parnassus is a fresco painting by Raphael in the Raphael Rooms ("Stanze di Raffaello"), in the Palace of the Vatican in Rome, painted at the commission of Pope Julius II in 1511. [detail] courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Parnassus#mediaviewer/File:Rafael_-_El_Parnaso_(Estancia_del_Sello,_Roma,_1511).jpg

April 2019
Supplemental illustration: (30 April 2019): Renaissance instruction in preparation of chemicals. From Annibal Barlet, Le Vray et methodique cours de Chymie (Paris, 1653) Image courtesy of U.S. National Library of Medicine http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/paracelsus/universities.html

Alchemy School (29 April 2019): Frontispiece woodcut from Zadith ben Hamuel De Chemia Senioris, 1566. See http://www.levity.com/alchemy/amclglr5.html

Supplemental illustration: (27 April 2019): Spherical bezoar stones, one from unknown animal, 1551-1750 the other (right) from a camel. Photo Photo number: L0058457, Wellcome Trust Images, courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spherical_bezoar_stone_from_unknown_animal,_1551-1750_Wellcome_L0058457.jpg

Filippo Sassetti (26 April 2019):Goa, India 1509. “Goa fortissima India urbs in Christianorum potestatem anno salutis 1509 deuenit.” [detail] From Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum I, p. 54. First Latin edition of was published in 1572. (After an unidentified Portuguese manuscript).


Supplemental illustration: (25 April 2019): Potash glass, 1619, engraved by Anna Roemers Visscher with a poem dedicated to the (later) father of astronomer and physicist Christiaan Huygens.  Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roemer_met_een_gedicht_op_Constantijn_Huygens,_anoniem,_Anna_Roemers_Visscher,_1619_-_Rijksmuseum_-_BK-1983-15.jpg

Tartar Salt (24 April 2019): Potassium bitartrate crystals. Photo Courtesy of Vintner’s Cellar Waterloo http://www.vintnerscellarwaterloo.com/article/29/wine_diamonds_or_crystals_in_a_bottle.html

Supplemental illustration: (23 April 2019): Alchemical glassware. Antonio Neri (1576-1612), "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo" MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598–1600. f. 38.

Art and Science (22 April 2019): Jacopo Ligozzi,1518,  fanciful glass vessels, ink and watercolor on paper. Galleria degli Uffizi. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-12537.html


Carries the Palm (19, 20 April 2019)
Assisi frescoes, entry into Jerusalem. Pietro Lorenzetti, 1320. Assisi, Lower Basilica, San Francesco, southern transept. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Assisi-frescoes-entry-into-jerusalem-pietro_lorenzetti.jpg

Saint Justina of Padua with a palm frond, Bartolo Montagna 1490s, oil on wood. Courtesy of The Metropolital Museum of Art,  Accession Number: 14.40.606. http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/437145

Copper Sulfate (vitriol of copper), courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Copper_sulfate.jpg Photo by: ‘Stephanb’ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Stephanb

Supplemental illustration: (18 April 2019): Recovering and concentrating Vitriol from a mining operation in the 16th century, from Agricola, De Re Metalica (1580) http://www.chokier.com/IMAGES/ROCHER/Agricola-De_re_metallica-Couperose.jpg

Vitriol of Venus (17 April 2019): Copper Sulfate (vitriol of copper), courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Copper_sulfate.jpg Photo by: ‘Stephanb’ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Stephanb

Sulfur of Saturn (15, 16 April 2019): Peter Paul Rubens c. 1630,  “Abundance (Abundantia).” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abundantia

Supplemental illustration (13 April 2019): Hematite Quartz from Orange River, Namibia. Hematite is a mineral form of iron oxide, here geologically intermixed in otherwise colorless quartz cristal, courtesy of https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hematite-Quartz-ckorqtz-34d.jpg

Crocus Martis (12 April 2019):
From Medicinisch-Chymisch- und Alchemistisches Oraculum, Ulm, 1755. Courtesy of The Alchemy Website, http://www.levity.com/alchemy/alchemical_symbols06.html

Supplemental illustration (11 April 2019): Famous mirror room of the Golestan Palace, the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, is located in Arq Square in Tehran.  http://historicaliran.blogspot.com/2011/03/golestan-palace.html

Adam Olearius (10 April 2019):
Adam Olearius (1599-1671), 18th century engr, Attr. unknown, source: http://www.aschersleben-tourismus.de/cms/persoenlichkeiten/adam-olearius/  (Probably a copy of: 1669 oil on canvas portrait by Juriaen Ovens (1623-1678) ) see: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adam-Olearius.jpg .

Supplemental illustration (9 April 2019):  Bronze statue of an Owl by the Flemish artist Giambologna (1529-1608) - Florence:Bargello Museum (Italy) http://wiki.cultured.com/people/Giambologna/

The Neighbors (8April 2019):
"Portrait of Giamologna"by Hendrick Goltzius, Teylers Museum, courtesy of  Wikimedia Commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Goltzius-Bologna.png

Supplemental illustration (6 April 2019): Glass bagpipe of Glenfiddich Piping Trophy, courtesy rebecca Lomnicky http://www.rebeccalomnicky.com/Photos7.htm

Glass Blowers (5 April 2019):
Berkshire Glass Works cane from 1878. These were novelty items made by glass workers in off hours.  It’s filled with the pure quartzite sand they were so proud of. It was 99.98% pure, the purest in the world. – Charles Flint http://www.peachridgeglass.com/2012/06/glass-cane-whimsies/

Supplemental illustration (4April 2019): Title page from Antonio Neri's 1612 book L'Arte Vetraria [the art of glassmaking] http://www.cmog.org/library/larte-vetraria-distinta-libri-sette-del-rp-antonio-neri-fiorentino

Eyes of a Lynx (3 April 2019):
The seal of the Academia dei Lincei. Courtesy of Accademia dei Lincei, Palazzo Corsini - Via della Lungara, 10, Rome. https://catalogue.museogalileo.it/gallery/AccademiaLincei.html

Supplemental illustration (2 April 2019): Calcedony (calcedonio) blown glass beaker, European, 1700-1799, Corning Museum of Glass, bequest of Jerome Strauss acc# 79.3.487

Chalcedony Glass (1 April 2019):
Ribbed vessel, chalcedony glass, seventeenth century, 20 cm. Collection of the  Museo del Monastero di Santa Giulia, Brescia Courtesy of Fondazione Marilena Ferrari. http://www.atlantedellarteitaliana.it/artwork-1479.html

March 2019
Supplemental illustration (30 March 2019): Glass items found by archaeologists in the baptistery at  SS. Giovanni e Reparata in Lucca, Italy. Evidence suggests some may have been originally  purchased from the Pisa shop of Giovanbattista Guerrazzi. http://archeologiamedievale.unisi.it/SitoCNR/Vetro/Produzione/Prod4b2.html

Rise and Fall (29 March 2019):
“Merry Company,” 1623. Gerard van Honthorst (1590–1656),
Courtesy of Staatsgalerie im Neuen Schloss, Schleißheim, via Wikimedia commons. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Honthorst,_Gerard_van_-_Merry_Company_-_1623.jpg

Supplemental illustration (28 March 2019): Sant'Agata Monastery (Via San Gallo, Florencce) Buonsignori map, 1594 https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiesa_di_Sant%27Agata_(Firenze)

The Sisters of an Alchemist (27 March 2019): Portrait of the Egerton Sisters, Elizabeth, Vere and Mary Egerton; English School, c. 1601. http://amapx.tumblr.com/post/117259364400/jeannepompadour-portrait-of-the-egerton

Women in Alchemy ( 25, 26 March 2019):
Antonio Neri, "Libro intitulato Il tesoro del mondo di Pietre Antonio Neri" (MS Ferguson 67, GB 0247, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, 1598-1600) f. 25r, 35r, 37r.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (23 March 2019): Pietro Longi, Portrait of the family Sagredo, circa 1752, courtesy of Wikimedia commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pietro_Longhi_053.jpg

Dianora Parenti (22 March 2019): Agnolo di Cosimo 'Bronzino,' "Portrait of Florentine Noblewoman" circa. 1540 Florence, (thought to be a cousin of Eleanor Toledo) Courtesy of  the San Diego Museum of Art. http://www.sdmart.org/

Supplemental Twitter illustration (21 March 2019): Dutch kitchen scene in Great Hall at Treasurer's House, York. By Beuckelaer, c.1530-73 https://www.pinterest.com/pin/490892428108875425/

Alchemy in the Kitchen (20 March 2019):
Antonio Neri, 1598-1600, Tesoro del Mondo, "Ars Preparatio Animalium”, MS Ferguson 67, f. 10r (detail). Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979


Supplemental illustration (19 March 2019): The Beguines' hospital of Malines in Mechelen, Belgium in the 19th century. Source unknown.

The Béguines of Malines (18 March 2019):
A Béguine of Antwerp, from Pierre Hélyot, L'Histoire des ordres monastiques… 1719 (v.8) Courtesy of Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=9DQGAAAAQAAJ

Caterina Sforza (15-16 March 2019): Portrait of Caterina Sforza, by Lorenzo di Credi (c.1463-1509)
Now in the Museum of Forlì (Pinacoteca Civica di Forlì, Italy)
Photo courtesy of: http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/monalisa/genealogy/073.htm
Via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Caterina_Sforza.jpg

Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (1498) Courtesy of Uffizi Gallery, Florence, via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Botticelli-primavera.jpg (detail - rightmost of the three graces)

Supplemental illustration:  (14 March 2019): H K Mulford advertising card showing vaccine was made in an adjacent facility to the glassworks. #WomenInSTEM #glass

Anna J. Agnew, Champion GlassBlower (13 March 2019): “Girl Champion Glassblower” Chicago Tribune: Chicago, Illinois, 9 March 1902, p. 43.

Supplemental illustration (12 March 2019): Detail of Dragon-Stem Goblet, Venice, Italy, 1630-1670. Courtesy of Corning Museum of Glass 51.3.118.

Sara Vincx (11 March 2019):
Detail from: Roses and an iris in a glass vase, crabs and prawns on a pewter platter, a Facon-de-Venise wineglass, a stoneware ewer, a bunch of grapes. By Alexander Adriaenssen b. 1587, Antwerp, d. 1661, Antwerp

Thomas Edison's Lady Glass Workers (8 March 2019):
Fig. 1: Sealing the Glass Socket and Carbon Filament into the Flask of an Incandescent Lamp. 1889, Scribner's Magazine v. 6
Fig. 2: Laboratory notebook entry signed solely by Mina Edison.
Fig. 3: Wanted ad for Edison’s Harrison Lampworks factory. The Boston Globe (Boston Massachusetts) 22 June 1894, Fri., p. 9.
Fig. 4: Finishing work on tungsten lamps, c.1927.

Supplemental illustration (7 March 2019): Nef, or navicella. First half of 16th century, possibly by Arminia Vivarini.  Museo del Vetro, Murano, Venice Italy.  http://museovetro.visitmuve.it/it/il-museo/percorsi-e-collezioni/vetro-xv-xvi-xvii-secolo/

Arminia Vivarini (6March 2019): Nef Ewer, Late 16th century, Murano Italy. Image courtesy of the Milwaukee Art Museum.

Supplemental illustration: (5 March 2019): Spun Glass ship 20 cent. attribution unknown -- Please contact me of you know artist or photographer.

Encomiums to a Female Glassblower (4 March 2019): Female fancy glass blower at the oil lamp. attribution unknown. Courtesy http://www.untamedrose.com/content/about-art

Antonio Neri's Birthday (1,2 March 2019):
Neri Medallion, Specola, Florence (manipulated to remove parallax distortion, and correct color) Original courtesy of Wikimedia commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Specola,_medaglione_di_antonio_neri.JPG

February 2019
The Cardinal's Ceiling (27, 28 February 2019)
Antonio Neri, Treasure of the World, f.xxviii-v. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/ordercopiesimages/#d.en.129979

Supplemental illustration (26 February 2019): Turquoise glass goblet, Venetian, c1490, 19cm tall. British Museum collection. http://britishmuseum.tumblr.com/post/121113973422/turquoise-glass-goblet

Turquoise Glass (25 February 2019):
Turquoise glass stamp of calif Mustadi 1170-1180. Photo by PHGCOM, 2009, at British Museum. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Turquoise_glass_stamp_of_calif_Mustadi_1170_1180.jpg

Supplemental illustration (22 February 2019): Domenico Ghirlandaio, tempera on wood 1483. Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints, from San Giusto Alle Mura, Florence. Now Galleria degli Uffizi, courtesy Wikimedia commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Domenico_Ghirlandaio_Madonna_and_Child_enthroned_with_Saint_c_1483.jpg

San Giusto Alle Mura (21 February 2019):
Window of  Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral, Florence, Italy. Window detail of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence. Photo by Georges Jansoone, courtesy  of Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Stained_glass_windows_in_Santa_Maria_del_Fiore_(Florence)#mediaviewer/File:Santa_Maria_del_Fiore_colour_glass_(1623723568).jpg

True Colors (19, 20 February 2019):
The European Roller [Pica Marina] Photo: Mehmet Goren, Pica Marina. Courtesy of Mehmet Goren. http://www.trakus.org/kods_bird/uye/?fsx=2fsdl15@d&idx=4193#.Uij5udKsjTo

Pica marina, Ulisse Aldrovandi, "Le tavole acquerellate di Ulisse Aldrovandi Tavole vol. 002 Animali ..." Manoscritto, Parnassus Scientiarum, Catalogue of the Waller Collection of History of Science and Medicine, Edited by Marco Beretta and Andrea Scotti Interface editor Daniele Nuzzo, Courtesy  of the University of Bologna. http://www.filosofia.unibo.it/aldrovandi/pinakesweb/compdetail.asp?compid=3521

Supplemental illustration: (18 February 2019): The Medici Glass Workshop (detail) in the Galleria dei Lavori of the Uffizi. Giovanni Maria Butteri (Italian, 1540–about 1606), 1570. Palazzo Vecchio, Studiolo of Francesco I.

Galleria Lavori (17 February 2019): Giovanni Stradano, alias Jan van der Straet (1523-1605), "Alchemy Studio" (1570). Palazzo Vecchio (Studiolo), Florence. Courtesy of Uffizi/Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.

Supplemental illustration: (16 February 2019): Dutch Factory at Surat as seen in April 1629. Plagerized / Reproduced by J.A. von Mandelso and labelled 'English factory' after an original etching by Pieter van den Broecke (1585-1640), a Dutch cloth merchant in the service of the Dutch East India Company in Korte Historiael ende Journaelsche Aenteyckeninghe published in Amsterdam, 1634. The only difference between the Mandelso & Broecke images is the distribution of people passing in front of the building. Image credit: British Library: 10095.aaa.49, p. 121 http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/parsi/surat2.htm

Thévenot in India (15 February 2019): Antique gold finger Ring Arsi Rajasthan India http://www.ebay.com/itm/Rare-Vintage-antique-20-carat-Gold-finger-Ring-Arsi-Rajasthan-India-/380447781358

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (14 February 2019): Glass Ewer with cameo-cut ornament.
Translucent pale green over colorless glass. Blown, cased, wheel-cut, probably drilled, ground, and polished. Persia or Egypt, produced between about A.D. 975 and 1025. Courtesy of Corniing Museum of Glass https://www.cmog.org/article/corning-ewer

Thévenot Continues East (13 February 2019): Stained glass windows of the Nasir al-Mulk 'Pink Mosque', Shiraz, Iran. Photo by Domiri Mohammad Reza Ganji. http://iranbusinessportal.com/stunning-photos-by-an-iranian-physicis/

Supplemental illustration (12 February 2019): The Hedwig beaker at the British Museum, may have originated in c17th Persia. Now thought to originate in Sicily  in the 10th to 12th century. see https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=217275&partId=1

Travels To The East (11 February 2019): 
Jean de Thévenot, from "Relation d'un voyage fait au Levant" Frontispiece, Thévenot, Jean de. Relation d’un voyage fait au Levant. Paris: L. Billaine, 1665 Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_de_Th%C3%A9venot_(1664).jpg

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (9 February 2019):  Piazza Santa Trìnita, Florence, the column of justice,  a massive granite column from the east section of the Baths of Caracalla in Rome. It was the gift of Pope Pius IV in 1560 for Cosimo I, the first Grand Duke of Florence. In 1581 the Justice statue by Tadda was added to the top of the column http://www.florence-on-line.com/piazzas/piazza-santa-trinita.html

Weights and Measures (8 February 2019):
"The Proclamation regarding Weights and Measures A.D. 1556" by Ford Madox Brown, a mural at Manchester Town Hall. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BrownManchesterMuralProclamation.jpg

Supplemental illustration  (7 February 2019):  Antonio Neri, "L'Arte Vetraria…" (Firenze: Giunti, 1612), p. i. (title page) https://books.google.com/books?id=XcnYJuJpMbEC

A Deeper Accomplishment   (6 February 2019): 
From Antonio Neri, "Treasure of the World" MS Ferguson 67, f. 22r. Courtesy of University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections.

Supplemental illustration (5 February 2019): Domenico Passignano (1559 – 17 May 1638), The c. 1598 altarpiece that was commissioned for the Neri chapel at  Cestello by Antonio Neri’s father. Courtesy of Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domenico_Passignano

Final Restingplace ?: (4 February 2019):
Neri Chapel, Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi, Borgo Pinti, 58, Florence, Italy. Photo by Paul Engle 2011

Supplemental illustration (February 2019):  Federico Barocci (1535–1612), Aeneas' Flight from Troy, 1598. Galleria Borghese  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aeneas%27_Flight_from_Troy_by_Federico_Barocci.jpg

We Were Trojans (1 February 2019):
Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo or 'Giandomenico Tiepolo' (1727-1804), "Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy", Wikimedia foundation, (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Giovanni_Domenico_Tipeolo,_Procession_of_the_Trojan_Horse_in_Troy._1773..jpg)

January 2019
Supplemental  illustration: (31 January 2019): http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Orto_botanico_di_Pisa_-_old_instiitute.JPG  Orto botanico di Pisa - old institute building. Pisa, Italy. Photo by "Daderot" 2006, GDFL.

Neri in Pisa (30 January 2019):
Grotesque style Euer by Niccolo Sisti, Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche in Faenza. Photo 2009, Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, the Wikimedia OTRS system, ticket #2009032510047417. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pisa_Nicol%C3%B2_Sisti_1590c_21511.JPG

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (29 January 2019): Philip William, Prince of Orange, Emanuel van Meteren (1535-1612), Simeon Ruytinck (-1621). Engraver: H. Jacopsen. Photography: D-vorm, Bert en Lilian Mellink. Courtesy of Wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emanuel_van_Meteren_Historie_ppn_051504510_MG_8780_philips_guillaume.tif

Dear Friends (28 January 2019):
The library of the University of Leiden (1610), where Christoph Plantin worked from 1583 to 1585. Picture courtesy of Frédéric Barbier http://histoire-du-livre.blogspot.com/2012_04_01_archive.html (28 Avril 2012). University Library Leiden in 1610 from Woudanus in ''Stedeboeck der Nederlanden'', Amsterdam: Willem Blaeu, 1649.

Supplemental Twitter illustration (26 January 2019): Georges de La Tour’s The Fortune Teller c.1630. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York http://www.abcgallery.com/L/latour/latour33.html

Alchemist's Assistant (25 January 2019):
Spine of Agnolo della Casa, BNCF MS. Palatino 867 [756 - 21, 2.] Serie Targioni, II, v. 3. Courtesy of Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze.

Supplemental illustration (24 January 2019): Paste gem and gold finger ring, 1600s, courtesy of The Museum of London, via https://www.pinterest.com/pin/76772368617930715/

Artificial Gems (23 January 2019):
Pendant, paste gems, Portugal ca. 1750. V&A acquisition nr.M.68-1962 http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O113043/pendant-unknown/

Supplemental illustration (22 January 2019): Potassium bitartrate crystals. Photo Courtesy of Vintner’s Cellar Waterloo http://www.vintnerscellarwaterloo.com/article/29/wine_diamonds_or_crystals_in_a_bottle.html

Scraping the Barrel (21 January 2019):
4th century BCE philosopher Diogenes, “Alexander and Diogenes” 1792 painting by Gaetano Gandolfi (1792). Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gaetano_Gandolfi_-_Alexander_and_Diogenes.jpg

Supplemental illustration: (19 January 2019): Ticino paver stones in Pavia, Italy Photo courtesy of Kaanz photography,  www.facebook.com/kaanzphotography

Pebbles from Pavia (18 January 2019):
William Pars (1742‑1782) “A Bridge on the River Ticino, near Polleggio” c.1770. Graphite and watercolor on paper Image courtesy  of the Tate Museum, London.  http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pars-a-bridge-on-the-river-ticino-near-polleggio-t08276

Supplemental Twitter illustration (17 January 2019): Oculus above the portal of the White Penitents Chapel in Montpellier, France. Stained glass window featuring the Holy Spirit, as a dove, symbol of the Confraternity and motto: "Spiritus Sanctus ubi vult spirat". [The Holy Spirit blows where it wishes] 17th century. Photo courtesy Wikimedia. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sainte-Foy,_chapelle_des_P%C3%A9nitents_blancs_de_Montpellier._Oculus_du_Saint-Esprit_symbole_de_la_Confr%C3%A9rie.jpg

Montpellier (16 January 2019):
Engraved view of Montpellier, France, in the seventeenth century. German, 1660. Attribution unknown, http://www.museeprotestant.org/en/notice/the-last-religious-wars/

Supplemental illustration: (15 January 2019): Cardinal de Richelieu, Philippe de Champaigne 1641. courtesy of wikimedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardinal_Richelieu#/media/File:Cardinal_de_Richelieu_mg_0053.jpg

Vitrum Flexile (14 January 2019): Roman Emperor Tiberius - Glass paste cameo c 20ACE by "Herophilos, Son of Dioskurides. Courtesy https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276865127678/

Sonnet for a Barber (10 January 2019):
Bust portrait of Luigi [Lodovico?] Domenechi facing right set within an elaborate cartouche Engraving. Italian, 'Medaglia del [Antonio Francesco]Doni' print made by: Enea Vico, 1550-1564.  Courtesy of  the British Museum, inventory #1867,1012.650.

Reflections on the Mirror (9 January 2019):
[1]Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait (1434), National Gallery, London, courtesy of Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Van_Eyck_-_Arnolfini_Portrait.jpg

[2] Detail of same.

Supplemental Twitter illustration: (8 January 2019):
Main entrance (detail) of Casino di San Marco, Florence, Italy. Macaque monkey over entrance embodies the playful spirit of discovery practiced inside. Photo by  "Sailko" 2007, via Wikimedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Casino_di_san_marco,_scimmietta.JPG

Casino di San Marco (7 January 2019):
Courtesy of ARCHIDIS - Fondo disegni tecnici del Comune di Firenze. Direction de Toscana place de Florence. Coupe du casin de S. Marc, prise sur la ligne. Cart. 5 tavola 1. sul retro: classe 1° Casino di S. Marco. n. 3 piante del casino della Livia - cav. Mazzei. Amfce 0533 (cass. 16 ins. A2). (http://opac.comune.firenze.it/).

Reticello (4 January 2019):
Reticello by Aaron Tate http://www.aarontate.com/ , Photo (c) by David Lindes courtesy of David Lindes. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lindes/78440530/.

Supplemental illustration: (3 January 2019): Stained glass window of Marc Chagall's work at the U.N. Image courtesy of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:UN_Glass.jpg

Zaffer: (2 January 2019) Antique Apothecary Pharmacy Bottles Cobalt Blue https://www.pinterest.com/pin/258605203572745183/

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